Chapter 5 & 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 & 6 Deck (60):
1

Resources

anything that we get from the living or nonliving environment to meet our needs and wants

2

Resource in Human Terms

1. Perpetual=inexhaustible
2. nonrenewable=finite supply
3. potentially renewable=can be renewed by natural processes

3

Natural Growth

below renewal capacity (use at a rate that can be sustained)

4

Maintenance

at renewal capacity (maintain levels consistently)

5

Decline

Above renewal capacity

6

Alteration

change in composition (used to be one species then planted another)

7

Pollution

threatens health (byproduct of changing matter into another form of matter)

8

Economic Systems for Resources

1. Private Enterprise
2. Socialism
3. Commons
4. Philanthropy

9

Private Enterprise

one company making money
-Used by- individual
Proceeds to- individual

10

Socialism

tribal culture group always vested in the resources
Used by- group
Proceeds to- group

11

Commons

group uses but 1 individual gets money
Used by- group
Proceeds go to- individual

12

Philanthropy

ex) Bill Gates
Used by- individual
Proceeds to- group

13

Philosophy

pursuit of wisdom
-most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes or an individual or gorup
-sets the stage for best practives and problem-solving in Environmental Science

14

To improve resource and Enviro management

1. Use science to inform decision making (*not economics, politics, or relationships)
2. Use management decisions to reflect what are accepted and best planning and management approaches.

15

Worldviews

sets of commonly shared values, ideas, and images concerning the nature of reality and the role of humanity within it

16

Ecocentric perspective

natural order exists on earth; balance is disrupted by humans

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Technocentric perspective

humans can understand,, control, and manipulate nature to meet our needs and wants

18

Leopold's Land Ethic

-nature valued without consumption
-each of us is a steward
-impacts of today's environment will affect future generations

19

Challenges in Resource and Enviro Management

developing more effective ways to integrate high quality, objective scientific and technical assessment with key decision needs

20

Two Approaches to problem solving

1) Standardized approach- treat every tregion the same
2. Custom designed solutions- design management that addresses specific conditions of a place and time (may be criticized for playing favourites)
-every area is unique and has its own challenges that needs individual attention

21

Muir

Preservationist- quasi religious
-need nature to enhance spiritual needs
-stop humans from going in, limit access

22

Leopold

-ecological/evolutionary land ethic
management of Banff Springs snail

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Pinchot-

resource conservationland ethic, wide use *anthropocentric) utilitarian (human use)
-takes resources out of environment

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Rio Summet 1992

- resource management is multi-jurisdictional (federal, provincial, municipal)
-can have conflicting legal mandates and interests
-ex) provincial=fishing license, federal= fisheries and oceans, municipal pay water bills to

25

Alteration

change the original composition of a natural area ex) mixed forest cut down to create a mono culture
-huge implications to species that live there

26

Cultural Aspects of Wise Management and Resources # 1 and 2

1. Preoccupation of government with debt and deficit reduction
-significant reduction of spending on enviro when gov. is in debt
-good economy= care about enviro
-recession= don't care
2. Many national and provincial governments have... a) downloaded responsibilities for enviro services to lower levels of gov (lack of resources there)
b) commercializing enviro services (back country fees, campground fee etc.) c) privatization (business)

27

Why do municipal govs. not succeed with enviro management?

too high a workload
no budget
no one trained in natural resource management

28

Principle of Subsidiarity

allocating responsibility to levels of gov. closest to where the services are used or received. Similar to downloading. More cost effective but sometimes not the best way.
-ppl closer are more invested
-change is local
-know how to manage better

29

Principle of efficiency

providing services at least cost
-is cheapest thing always the best

30

Cultural Aspects of Wise Management and Resources #3

Governments favouring less government intervention and more reliance of private sector and market to deliver products and services (globalization, business model)
-organizations use business plans (cost/benefit analysis) problem=can't value everything ex) polar bear?

31

Cultural Aspects of Wise Management and Resources #4

Governments have been backing away from concern for or commitment to enviro issues in favour of economic growth
-after kyoto Canada went up 20% and pulled out (many Countries met their goals)
-13 pieces of enviro legislation changed to facilitate economic growth

32

Sustainable societies

-attention needs to be given to meeting basic human needs
-realizing equality and justice
-protecting ecological integrity
-attaining self-empowerment
-integrating economy and enviro
-keeping options open

33

Pacific Yew

Plant in BC take all the extra stuff and burn it and discovered this is a cure for ovarian cancer...

34

Sustainable development

meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of the future.

35

Need to Balance

1) enviro
2) economic
3) social
-not always same balance economics usually seen as most important

36

science

systematic attempt to understand the universe
-often need to do experiements

37

Misunderstandings about science

science is not value free
-we fund what we find important and this changes all teh time

38

Science and critical thinking

-many competing views and claims about enviro so which ones do we believe?
-won't get funding if you mention climate change in a grant proposal

39

Reductionism

-examining increasingly lower levels or organization
-search for hidden structure, unifying force, component
-break into small groups/particles and look at them that way

40

Holism

-focus on the interrelationships of organisms themselves in context of time and space
-ecosystem perspective (in order to understand the whole you must understand the parts)

41

World View Analysis

Core values- relationship with nature, values of nature
-children need a relationship with nature in order to want to protect it
Guiding Principles- economy, society, role of nature, knowledge

42

Environmental Values

=relative worth or merit

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Utilitarian

direct economic benefits (how much can we make off of the resource)

44

Ecological

specific functions necessary for persistence of life (Leopold)

45

Aesthetic

beauty, profound human importance (muir)

46

Moral

right to exist, separate from humans

47

What influences our perspectives?

societal norms in culture, religion, education, political affiliation

48

Sustainable Livlihoods

creating diverse opportunities efficiently and sufficiently relative to basic needs (-social equity, sensitivity with regards to enviro integrity
-who gets what resources based on values
- always put humans back into the equation
-programs in place where people learn how to grow their own food.

49

What is the major cause and effect of global enviro problems?

Poverty

50

Enviro Justice

advocates policies of ecologically and economically appropriate development eg) pollution prevention, pollution control) Acid rain & montreal protocol, Obama pushing climate change initiative, protected parks, wind power (bats flying too close, humans sleep, bird migration patterns)

51

Moral rights issue

a safe and healthy enviro should be a right not a privilege

52

Ecosystem Approaches

-whole system (humans too)
-interrelationships
-dynamic nature of ecosystem
-limits to human activity (carrying capacity, resilience, sustainability)
-rural and urban
-natural geographic units

53

National Parks are based on...

ecosystems

54

Adaptive Enviro Management

Policies are experiments- LEARN FROM THEM
-predict what you expect
-collect and analyze data and compare predictions with reality
-correct errors, improve plants
-make a policy and treat it like an experiment
-based on precautionary principle

55

Enviro Impact Assessment

-identifies and predicts impacts of a proposed project on enviro and human health and well-being
-bats considered with windmill applications

56

Key Federal EIA legislation

Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 2012

57

Precautionary Principle

to protect the enviro when there are serious risks error on the side of caution
-EIA assessments
ex) build bridge over a highway to avoid influencing genetic diversity of animals

58

EIA- what is assessed?

projects- designated project (federal), mandatory project (provincial)
-minister's discretion
-specified requirements
-assessing things with significance/huge enviro affects (ex- coal/nuclear plants)

59

When should EIA be done?

Early in the process before the baco hits the ground, with a proposal we do an EIA, tools based on policy & legislation that help you manage the enviro

60

What is the significance?

Depends on the resources affected, the project, and the location