Chapter 5 and 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 and 6 Deck (31):
1

What is elecromagnetic radiation?

A form of energy that exhiits wavelike behavior as it travels through space.

2

What is the wavelength?

Represented by λ, shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave.

3

What is the fruquency?

Represented by ν, the number of waves that pass a given point per second.

4

What is the amplitude?

The wave's height from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough.

5

What is the speed of light? How is it represented?

3.00×10^8 m/s, represented by c.

6

What is the equation for eletromagnetic wave relationship? (c, λ, v)

c=λv
(Speed of light in vacuum=wavelength×frequency)

7

What is the sequence of the electromagnetic spectrum?

Radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, gamma rays.

8

What is a quantum? Who came up with this concept?

The minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom. Max Planck.

9

What is the equation for the enrgy of a quantum?

E=hv
(Energy=Planck's constant × frequency)

10

What is the Planck's constant?

6.626×10^-34 J·S

11

What is the photoelectric effect?

Electrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency, or highter than a certain frequency, shines on the surface.

12

What is a photon? Who came up with this concept?

A massless particle that carries a quantum of energy. Albert Einstein.

13

What is the atomic emission spectrum of an element?

The set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of the element. Atoms are excited when they absorb energy and they return to their stable state by emitting light to release that energy.

14

What is the ground state of an atom?

It is the lowest energy level possible.

15

What series does visible light belong in the atomic emission spectrum?

Balmer.

16

What series does infrared belong in the atomic emission spectrum?

Paschen.

17

What series does ultraviolet belong in the atomic emission spectrum?

Lyman.

18

What is the de Broglie equation?

It predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics.
λ=h/mv (v is velocity)

19

What is Schrodinger's equation?

Each solution to this equation is known as a wave function, which relates to the probablility of finding the electron within a particular volume around the nucleus.

20

What is the aufbau principle?

Each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available.

21

Whhat is the Pauli exclusion principle?

The maximum of two electron can occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins.

22

What is Hund's rule?

It states that the single electron with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electron with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals.

23

What is the principal quantum number?

It indicates the relative energy and size of atomic orbitals. As n increases, the orbital becomes larger and the electron spends more time farther away from the nucleus.

24

Who developed the periodic table?

Dmitri Mendeleev.

25

Who developed the periodic law?

Henry Moseley.

26

What are properties of metals?

Malleable and ductile, good conductor of heat and electricity, shiny, solid at room temperature.

27

What are the representative elements?

Group 1,2, and 13 to 18.

28

What are the transition elements?

Group 3 to 12.

29

What are the inner transition metals?

The lanthanide series and actinide series.

30

What is the octet rule?

Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valance electrons.

31

What is electronegativity?

The relative ability of atoms of an element to attract electrons in a chemical bond.