Chapter 5: Archaeology & Cultural Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Archaeology & Cultural Evolution Deck (14)
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1

Archaeology

Cultural anthropology of the human past focusing on material evidence of human modification of the physical environment

2

Archaeological record

All physical remains created by humans or near-humans revealed by archaeology

3

Site

A precise geographical location of the remains of past human activity

4

Feature

Non-portable remnants from the past
Ex: House walls or ditches

5

Relative dating

Provide a time frame in relation to other strata or materials

6

Stratigraphy

Examines accumulation of sediments in layers

7

Law of superposition

Layers closest to the bottom are the oldest

8

Artifacts

Objects that have been deliberately and intelligently shaped by human or near-human activity

9

Assemblages

Artifacts and structures from a particular time and place in a site

10

Archaeological cultures

Similar assemblages from many sites

11

Taphonomy

The study of processes that affect remains

12

Preservation

The survival of archaeological remains
(depends on what they were made of and the conditions they experienced)

13

Ecofacts

Plant and animal remains used to make inferences about paleo-environments and diet

14

Controlling fire

One of the most important achievements in human cultural development