Chapter 5 - Behavioral Theories of Learning Flashcards Preview

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Behavioral Learning Theories

Explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior.

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Social Learning Theories

Learning theories that emphasize not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action.

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Cognitive Learning Theories

Explanations of learning that focus on mental processes.

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Learning

A change in an individual that results from experience.

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Stimuli

Environmental conditions that activate the senses; the singular is stimulus.

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Unconditioned Stimulus

A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response.

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Unconditioned Response

A behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus

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Neutral Stimuli

Stimuli that have no effect on a particular response

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Conditioned Stimulus

A previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus

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Classical Conditioning

The process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response

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Operant Conditioning

The use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior

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Skinner Box

An apparatus developed by B.F. Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments of operant conditioning

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Consequences

Pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors

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Reinforcer

A pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior

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Primary Reinforcer

Food, water, or other consequence that satisfies a basic need

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Secondary Reinforcer

A consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer

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Positive Reinforcer

Pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior

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Negative Reinforcer

Release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior

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Premack Principle

Rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities

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Intrinsic Reinforcers

Behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward

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Extrinsic Reinforcers

Praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not do otherwise

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Punishment

Unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior

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Aversive Stimulus

An unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape

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Presentation Punishment

An aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again

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Removal Punishment

Withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that may be reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will recur.

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Response Cost

Procedure of charging misbehaving students against their free time or other privileges

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Time Out

Procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced

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Shaping

The teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps towards the desired goal

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Extinction

The weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn

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Extinction Burst

The increase in levels of a behavior in the early stages of extinction

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Schedule of Reinforcement

The frequency and predictability of reinforcement

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Fixed-Ration (FR) schedule

Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors

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Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedule

Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable number of behaviors

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Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule

Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time.

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Variable-Interval (VI) Schedule

Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time

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Maintenance

Continuation of behavior

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Antecedent Stimuli

Events that precede the behaviors

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Cues

Signals as to which behaviors will be reinforced or punished

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Discrimination

Perception of and response to differences in stimuli

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Generalization

Carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another

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Modeling

Imitation of others' behavior

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Observational Learning

Learning by observation and imitation of others

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Vicarious Learning

Learning based on observation of the consequences of others' behavior

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Self-Regulation

Rewarding or punishing one's own behavior

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Cognitive Behavior Modification

Procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one's own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction.