Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Behavioral Theories of Learning Deck (45):
Behavioral Learning Theories
Explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior.
Social Learning Theories
Learning theories that emphasize not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action.
Cognitive Learning Theories
Explanations of learning that focus on mental processes.
A change in an individual that results from experience.
Environmental conditions that activate the senses; the singular is stimulus.
A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response.
A behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus
Stimuli that have no effect on a particular response
A previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
The process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response
The use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior
An apparatus developed by B.F. Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments of operant conditioning
Pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors
A pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior
Food, water, or other consequence that satisfies a basic need
A consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer
Pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior
Release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior
Rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities
Behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward
Praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not do otherwise
Unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior
An unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape
An aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again
Withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that may be reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will recur.
Procedure of charging misbehaving students against their free time or other privileges
Procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced
The teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps towards the desired goal
The weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn
The increase in levels of a behavior in the early stages of extinction
Schedule of Reinforcement
The frequency and predictability of reinforcement
Fixed-Ration (FR) schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors
Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable number of behaviors
Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time.
Variable-Interval (VI) Schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time
Continuation of behavior
Events that precede the behaviors
Signals as to which behaviors will be reinforced or punished
Perception of and response to differences in stimuli
Carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another
Imitation of others' behavior
Learning by observation and imitation of others
Learning based on observation of the consequences of others' behavior
Rewarding or punishing one's own behavior