Chapter 5 developing through the life span recogniton Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 developing through the life span recogniton Deck (39):
1

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

developmental psychology

2

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of a rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.

zygote

3

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.

embryo

4

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.

fetus

5

(lit monster maker) agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.

teratogens

6

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial disproportions.

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

7

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

habituation

8

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior ,relatively uninfluenced by experience.

maturation

9

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

cognition

10

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.

schema

11

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.

assimilation

12

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

accommodation

13

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.

sensorimotor stage

14

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.

object permanence

15

in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.

egocentrism

16

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.

preoperational stage

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the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remains the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

conservation

18

people's ideas about their own and others' mental state – about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.

theory of mind

19

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

concrete operation stage

20

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.

formal operation stage

21

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.

stranger anxiety

22

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.

attachment

23

an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development.

critical period

24

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.

imprinting

25

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.

basic trust

26

our understanding and evaluation of who we are.

Self-concept

27

the transition from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.

adolescence

28

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.

puberty

29

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.

primary sex characteristics

30

Non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.

secondary sex characteristics

31

the first menstrual period.

menarche

32

our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidity a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.

identity

33

the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group membership.

social identity

34

in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.

intimacy

35

for some people in modern cultures, a period from late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence.

emerging adulthood

36

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.

menopause

37

a study in which people of different ages are compared to one another

Cross-sectional study

38

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.

longitudinal study

39

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.

social clock