Chapter 5: Development Through The Lifespan Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Development Through The Lifespan Deck (64):
1

Moral Dilemma

A conflict in which you have to choose between two or more actions and have moral reasons for choosing each action

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Moral Intuition

Ethical intuition is our awareness of value and knowledge of evaluative facts, that form the foundation of ethical knowledge

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Preconvential Morality

An acceptance of society's convention concerning right and wrong, at this level an individual will obey the rules even when there is no consequence, and to gain rewards

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Conventional Morality

An acceptance of society's conventions concerning right and wrong, at this level a person will uphold laws and rules to gain social approval and maintain social order

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Post Conventional Morality

Based on abstract reasoning, and actions that reflect belief in basic rights and self defined ethical principles

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Teleological Theories

Leave out the dimension of the moral judgement of an action

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Deontological Theories

Making decisions that deny that consequences are of any concern

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Psychosocial Task

The crisis in each stage of life that needs resolution

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Search for Identity

The quest to find one's self during adolescence

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Identity

The sense of who you are as a person

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Social Identity

Who you are when you are with different groups of people

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Competence

The ability to do a task successfully

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Inferiority

The condition of being lower in status or quality than someone else

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Isolation

To remain apart from others

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Adolescence

The years spent morphing from child to adult, starting with physical beginnings of sexual maturity and ends with the social achievement of independent adult status

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Puberty

The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing (Around 11 for girls, 13 for boys)

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Primary Sex Characteristics

The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

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Secondary Sex Characteristics

Non-reproductive sexual characteristics (breasts, hips, voice tone, body hair)

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Menarche

The first menstrual period

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Morality

Discerning right from wrong

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Moral Action

Doing, feeling, thinking, and feeling the right thing

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Social Identity

The 'we' aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to 'who am I' that comes from group membership

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Intimay

In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary development task in late adolescence and early adulthood

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Emerging Adulthood

For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

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Sensorimotor Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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Object Permanence

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not percieved

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Egocentrism

In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

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Preoperational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operation of concrete logic

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Conservation

The principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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Theory of the Mind

People's ideas about their own and other's mental sates- about their feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict

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Concrete Operational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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Formal Operational Stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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Autism

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind

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Cognitive Development

Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory. Cognitive development is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood

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Developmental Psychology

The study of psychology that involves studying physical, cognitive, and social change over time

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Zygote

The fertilized egg. First stage in pregnancy

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Embryo

The stage that takes place between two weeks and two months after fertilization. This slightly resembles a human

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Fetus

This stage looks like a formed human. The baby is in this stage from nine weeks after conception until birth

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Placenta

Life-link that transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to embryo. Made up of the outer cells

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Teratogens

Chemicals and viruses that reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking

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Habituation

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation

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Epigenetic Effect

Leaves chemical marks on DNA that switch genes abnormally on or off

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Early Adulthood

Stage of adulthood from age 20's to 30's when people are at a peak in learning and memory

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Middle Adulthood

Stage of adulthood from early adulthood to age 65 when people begin to feel the decline physically and cognitively

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Late Adulthood

Stage of adulthood from age 65 onward where people start feeling the effects of death and care more about raising the next generation

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Menopause

When the menstrual cycles of women end around age 50

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Telomeres

Tips of chromosomes that wear down over time

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Death-deferral Phenomenon

More people die right after reaching a major milestone such as Christmas or a birthday

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Dementia

A series of strokes, a brain tumor, or alcohol dependence causing the brain to erode emotionally

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Alzheimer's Disease

A disease that first causes memory to deteriorate at first and then later reasoning

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Prospective Memory

Memory used to remember things in the future

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Longitudinal Study

Studies done where the same people are tested and retested over a long period of time

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Cross-sectional Study

A study that compares people of different ages

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Terminal Decline

the decline in cognition in people in the last few years of their life

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Mdilife Transition

The transition of people into middle adulthood when they realize that their life is mostly behind them instead of ahead of them

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Social Clock

The varying 'right time' to do things such as leave home ,marry, or retire in different eras and cultures

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Sandwich Generation

The generation of people who have to simultaneously support children/grandchildren and aging parents

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Chance Events

Events such as romantic attraction that happen by chance and change your life

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Monogamous Pairing

when parents stay together and raise their children together

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Generativity

The concern of people to guide and raise the next generation developed in middle adulthood

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Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Reed Larson

Performed a study that compared the emotional levels of different generations and found that older people have moods that are less extreme and more enduring than teenagers who get over mood such as gloom in less than an hour

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Bereavement Therapy

Also known as grief therapy, given to people dealing with loss

64

Sense of Integrity

The feeling that one's life has been meaningful and worthwhile