Chapter 5 - Ecosystems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Ecosystems Deck (59):
1

Abiotic

Abiotic factors are factors within an ecosystem that are not living such as temperature and light.

2

Biotic

Biotic factors are factors within an ecosystem that are living such as animals and plants

3

Niche

A comfortable or suitable position if life. The environment

4

Ecosystem

a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

5

Predator

an animal that naturally preys on others.

6

Prey

an animal that is hunted and killed by another for food.

7

Parasite

an organism which lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the other's expense.

8

Host

an animal or plant on or in which a parasite or commensal organism lives.

9

Mutualism

the doctrine that mutual dependence is necessary to social well-being.

10

Commensalism

an association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm.

11

Symbiosis

Is a relationship between two individual organisms.

12

Parasitism

One specie benefits from the relationship and the other is harmed

13

Chemosynthetic

describes organisms that produce organic material using energy released from chemical reactions rather than light

14

Food chains

diagram that shows how the energy stored in one organism is passed to another

15

Food webs

diagram showing several food chains joined together to demonstrate that animals eat more than one type of food

16

Trophic levels

Levels within a food chain, food web or food pyramid

17

First order

organism that is within the second trophic level of a food chain (herbivores); also known as a primary consumer

18

Primary consumer

the first consumer in a food chain; also known as a first-order consumer

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Second order

organism that is within the third trophic level of a food chain (carnivores); also known as a secondary consumer

20

Pyramid of numbers

a representation of the population, or numbers of organisms, at each level within a food chain

21

Pyramid of biomass

a representation of the dry mass of organisms at each level within a food chain

22

Birth rate

the number of organisms within a population that are born within a particular period of time

23

Death rate

the number of organisms within a population that die within a particular period of time

24

Immigration

When a species moves into a new ecosystem

25

Emigration

When a species moves out of an ecosystem

26

Exponential growth

a rapid increase in number or size, represented by a J-shaped graph

27

Sigmoid

the shape of a graph that shows a population increasing in number then reaching a plateau

28

Equilibrium

a state in which conditions are balanced and there is neither growth nor a decrease in number; also known as steady state or plateau phase

29

Carrying capacity

The amount of species a certain environment or ecosystem can sustain

30

Producers

organism at the base of the food chain that does not need to feed on other organisms; also known as an autotroph

31

Photosynthesis

the food-making process in plants that takes place in chloroplasts within cells. The process uses carbon dioxide, water and energy from the sun.

32

Autotroph

An autotroph is a species that makes it own food.

33

Niche

A comfortable or suitable position if life. The environment

34

Ecosystem

a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

35

Predator

an animal that naturally preys on others.

36

Prey

an animal that is hunted and killed by another for food.

37

Parasite

an organism which lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the other's expense.

38

Host

an animal or plant on or in which a parasite or commensal organism lives.

39

Mutualism

the doctrine that mutual dependence is necessary to social well-being.

40

Commensalism

an association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm.

41

Symbiosis

Is a relationship between two individual organisms.

42

Parasitism

One specie benefits from the relationship and the other is harmed

43

Chemosynthetic

describes organisms that produce organic material using energy released from chemical reactions rather than light

44

Food chains

diagram that shows how the energy stored in one organism is passed to another

45

Food webs

diagram showing several food chains joined together to demonstrate that animals eat more than one type of food

46

Trophic levels

Levels within a food chain, food web or food pyramid

47

First order

organism that is within the second trophic level of a food chain (herbivores); also known as a primary consumer

48

Primary consumer

the first consumer in a food chain; also known as a first-order consumer

49

Second order

organism that is within the third trophic level of a food chain (carnivores); also known as a secondary consumer

50

Pyramid of numbers

a representation of the population, or numbers of organisms, at each level within a food chain

51

Pyramid of biomass

a representation of the dry mass of organisms at each level within a food chain

52

Birth rate

the number of organisms within a population that are born within a particular period of time

53

Death rate

the number of organisms within a population that die within a particular period of time

54

Immigration

When a species moves into a new ecosystem

55

Emigration

When a species moves out of an ecosystem

56

Exponential growth

a rapid increase in number or size, represented by a J-shaped graph

57

Sigmoid

the shape of a graph that shows a population increasing in number then reaching a plateau

58

Equilibrium

a state in which conditions are balanced and there is neither growth nor a decrease in number; also known as steady state or plateau phase

59

Carrying capacity

The amount of species a certain environment or ecosystem can sustain