Flashcards in Chapter 5: Greece and Persia Deck (46):
What type of shape and terrain made up Greece
it was a mountainous peninsula `
what were the most important geographical influences on greece? how was it different?
the mountains and the sea. this was different then all of the other civilizations because it wasn't a river valley dependent civilization.
who was arthur evans?
the british archaeologist who dug on crete and gave the minoan civilization its name after their king, minos
who was heinrich Schleimen?
the german archaeologist who first discovered the Mycenae
what was the first greek state?
what is a tholos?
a large beehive shaped tombs where the royal family was buried
describe the Mycenaean culture:
warrior culture, typical occupations were hunting and fishing
according to Homer, the mycenaeans sacked what city?
they sacked troy on the northwestern coast of modern turkey around 1250 BC
who led the mycenaeans in their attack on troy?
Agamemnon, the king of mycenae
describe the Greeks in a Dark Age
1. few records exist
2. both population and food production failed
3. iron replaced bronze because it was stronger
4. the greeks adopted the phoenician alphabet, making reading and writing simpler
5. homer appeared near the end
what were homer's two great epic poems?
the iliad and the odyssey
what is an epic poem?
a long poem that tells of a great hero's deeds
what happened in the iliad? and what key idea does this relate to and why?
a tale about the destruction caused by the anger of the greek hero Achilles and the trojan war. the mycenaean greeks lay siege on troy for ten years, finally taking the city with the Trojan Horse. this key idea this brings is the idea of brains over bronze
what is the odyssey about?
the story of the greek hero odysseus' ten year return to his home and family
what are the 3 main greek values and who are these based off of?
courage, honor, and virtue; homer
what is a polis?
a center where people met for political, economic, social, and religious activities which then became the central focus of greek life
what is an acropolis
the main gathering place that was usually on a hill, topped with a fortified area
what is an agora
an open area for people to assemble and for a market
what city state had the largest population
what did people in the polis community all have in common
identity and goals
name the three class in the polis
1. citizens with political rights(adult males)
2. citizens without political rights(women and children)
3. non citizens(slaves and resident aliens)
why were the city states patriotic and distrustful of one another
they were very loyal
what is xenophobia
what is a phalanx
fighting shoulder to shoulder in a formation walking fast
in comparison, their phalanx is equivalent to our what
in the greek colonies, what were two motives to settle
growth of trade and wanting good farmland
because of the increase of trade and industry, what did they start exporting?
pottery, wine, and fish
an increase in imports led to an increase in what
a new wealthy class of merchants who wanted political power
why was there an increase in tyrants in the greek city-states
the creation of the new wealthy class. a tyrant in this case is refereeing to someone who seized power
how did tyrants keep power
hired soldiers called mercenaries
describe an oligarchy
ruled by the few
what is a helot
in order to keep power over the helots, what did sparta do
created a military state
describe the pre-socratic philosophies
scientist-philosophers interested in the constitution of the universe and the first principles of physics
in pre-socratic philosophies, what were the 6 main groups and briefly describe them
1. ionians- fundamental components of the universe, i.e. water and fire
2. pythagorus-numbers are the fundamental components element of reality
3. eleatics-change is an illusion
4. pluralists- reality is made up of many substances i.e. earth, air, fire, and water
5. atomists- matter is made up of tiny, indivisible atoms
6. sophists- man is the measure of all things
Socrates (469-399 BC)
1. created the socratic method
2. objects to the sophists
3. defends the idea of virtue and wisdom
Plato (427-347 BC)
1. Student of Socrates-advanced Socratic Method
2. believed in the Theory of Forms
3. wrote the "Myth of the Cave"
4. believed in Anamnesis
what is the theory of forms
believing reality consists fundamentally on unchanging, immaterial abstract forms
what is amamnesis
knowledge is recollection, the immortal soul remembers its prior familiarity with the forms
Aristotle (384-322 BC)
1. Metaphysics-goes against Plato's beliefs
2. Epistemology- knowledge is from the senses and observations
3. invented the Syllogism
4. his logic was not improved upon until the nineteeth century
the republic said what
it outlined the structure of the ideal, virtuous
what did the ideal state consist of
3 groups-rulers motivated by wisdom, warriors motivated by courage, commoners motivated by desire
why were macedonians considered barbarians
they were rural people who did not live in city states
alexander created a new age called what
why did alexander offer a peace treaty
he was doubtful he would win the second war vs the persians however the king denies it