Chapter 5: Greece and Persia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Greece and Persia Deck (46):
1

What type of shape and terrain made up Greece

it was a mountainous peninsula `

2

what were the most important geographical influences on greece? how was it different?

the mountains and the sea. this was different then all of the other civilizations because it wasn't a river valley dependent civilization.

3

who was arthur evans?

the british archaeologist who dug on crete and gave the minoan civilization its name after their king, minos

4

who was heinrich Schleimen?

the german archaeologist who first discovered the Mycenae

5

what was the first greek state?

mycenae

6

what is a tholos?

a large beehive shaped tombs where the royal family was buried

7

describe the Mycenaean culture:

warrior culture, typical occupations were hunting and fishing

8

according to Homer, the mycenaeans sacked what city?

they sacked troy on the northwestern coast of modern turkey around 1250 BC

9

who led the mycenaeans in their attack on troy?

Agamemnon, the king of mycenae

10

describe the Greeks in a Dark Age

1. few records exist
2. both population and food production failed
3. iron replaced bronze because it was stronger
4. the greeks adopted the phoenician alphabet, making reading and writing simpler
5. homer appeared near the end

11

what were homer's two great epic poems?

the iliad and the odyssey

12

what is an epic poem?

a long poem that tells of a great hero's deeds

13

what happened in the iliad? and what key idea does this relate to and why?

a tale about the destruction caused by the anger of the greek hero Achilles and the trojan war. the mycenaean greeks lay siege on troy for ten years, finally taking the city with the Trojan Horse. this key idea this brings is the idea of brains over bronze

14

what is the odyssey about?

the story of the greek hero odysseus' ten year return to his home and family

15

what are the 3 main greek values and who are these based off of?

courage, honor, and virtue; homer

16

what is a polis?

a center where people met for political, economic, social, and religious activities which then became the central focus of greek life

17

what is an acropolis

the main gathering place that was usually on a hill, topped with a fortified area

18

what is an agora

an open area for people to assemble and for a market

19

what city state had the largest population

athens

20

what did people in the polis community all have in common

identity and goals

21

name the three class in the polis

1. citizens with political rights(adult males)
2. citizens without political rights(women and children)
3. non citizens(slaves and resident aliens)

22

why were the city states patriotic and distrustful of one another

they were very loyal

23

what is xenophobia

extreme patriotism

24

what is a phalanx

fighting shoulder to shoulder in a formation walking fast

25

in comparison, their phalanx is equivalent to our what

military tanks

26

in the greek colonies, what were two motives to settle

growth of trade and wanting good farmland

27

because of the increase of trade and industry, what did they start exporting?

pottery, wine, and fish

28

an increase in imports led to an increase in what

a new wealthy class of merchants who wanted political power

29

why was there an increase in tyrants in the greek city-states

the creation of the new wealthy class. a tyrant in this case is refereeing to someone who seized power

30

how did tyrants keep power

hired soldiers called mercenaries

31

describe an oligarchy

ruled by the few

32

what is a helot

captured person

33

in order to keep power over the helots, what did sparta do

created a military state

34

describe the pre-socratic philosophies

scientist-philosophers interested in the constitution of the universe and the first principles of physics

35

in pre-socratic philosophies, what were the 6 main groups and briefly describe them

1. ionians- fundamental components of the universe, i.e. water and fire
2. pythagorus-numbers are the fundamental components element of reality
3. eleatics-change is an illusion
4. pluralists- reality is made up of many substances i.e. earth, air, fire, and water
5. atomists- matter is made up of tiny, indivisible atoms
6. sophists- man is the measure of all things

36

Socrates (469-399 BC)

1. created the socratic method
2. objects to the sophists
3. defends the idea of virtue and wisdom

37

Plato (427-347 BC)

1. Student of Socrates-advanced Socratic Method
2. believed in the Theory of Forms
3. wrote the "Myth of the Cave"
4. believed in Anamnesis

38

what is the theory of forms

believing reality consists fundamentally on unchanging, immaterial abstract forms

39

what is amamnesis

knowledge is recollection, the immortal soul remembers its prior familiarity with the forms

40

Aristotle (384-322 BC)

1. Metaphysics-goes against Plato's beliefs
2. Epistemology- knowledge is from the senses and observations
3. invented the Syllogism
4. his logic was not improved upon until the nineteeth century

41

the republic said what

it outlined the structure of the ideal, virtuous

42

what did the ideal state consist of

3 groups-rulers motivated by wisdom, warriors motivated by courage, commoners motivated by desire

43

why were macedonians considered barbarians

they were rural people who did not live in city states

44

alexander created a new age called what

Hellenistic Era

45

why did alexander offer a peace treaty

he was doubtful he would win the second war vs the persians however the king denies it

46

what was the key to alexander winning most of his battles?

he fought hand to hand