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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Human Origins Deck (54)
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1

What is the term for the natural history of earth and the universe, including the span of human existence?

Deep time

2

What do we call the chemical process that preserves an organism by turning it partially or wholly into a rock?

Fossilization

3

In order for an organism to become a fossil, it:

Has to be buried in oxygen-free sediment.

4

While a great many of the fossils of our earliest human ancestors have been found in Africa, why is it problematic to use these fossils to make concrete conclusions about our earliest origins?

There is unequal representation of time periods and species in the fossil record

5

What is the term used to describe scientists who study fossil remains of our early human ancestors?

Paleoanthropologist

6

Stratigraphy is a technique of relative dating, and it depends on _____.

Assumptions that what is deeper is older

7

The chance discovery of the Kennewick man in 1996 opened a window to early human life in North America. This success might not have been possible, however, without researchers making comparisons of the remains to nearby plants, animals, and other parts of the remains to understand the context. This approach to dating is called _____.

Relative

8

What kind of dating techniques gives a specific date for a fossil?

Absolute

9

Which of the following can be dated using radiocarbon dating methods?

hair preserved in peat bogs

10

What can the radiopotassium dating technique be applied to?

Stone of volcanic origin

11

Where in the body do we carry our genetic code?

DNA

12

Genetic studies of mtDNA indicates that:

All living humans have a common matrilineal ancestor.

13

At about what date do DNA studies place the migration of humans out of Africa?

100,000 yBP

14

Calculations of DNA mutation rates indicate that Native Americans migrated about _____ yBP.

15,000

15

What is evolution?

Evolution describes how biological adaptation in organism occur as a response to environmental changes, developing over generations

16

What do we called the Protestant Christian belief that God created the earth between 6,000 and 10,000 yBP?

Creationism

17

A recent attempt to undermine evolution tries to avoid religions and instead claims that hard evidence shows life is too complex to be random. What is this theory called?

Intelligent design

18

Scientists believe that genetic mutations are:

The only source of new genetic material in a population

19

What environmental agents increase the frequency of mutations?

Mutagens

20

Until the mid-1800s, most peppered moths in Great Britain were white, while a few were dark. Why did these groups switch during the Industrial Revolution, when most of the peppered moth population evolved to have the darker coloration?

Dark moths were selected because their color was an advantage in the new environment

21

The sickle cell gene is found in high frequency in certain African countries along the equator because:

The gene provides certain advantages in that environment

22

Genetic drift is significant in evolution because it can:

Make an isolated group genetically distinct

23

Gene flow is the:

Movement of genes between populations.

24

What significant fossil discoveries have emerged from the site at Middle Awash River valley in Ethiopia?

Fossils of both archaic and modern human ancestors

25

When a small part of a population with a unique phenotypical characteristic migrated to a new location and begins to reproduce separately as a new, distinct group, what is this process called?

Founder effect

26

Which of the following is a list of our human ancestors in chronological order (as we now understand them), from oldest to youngest?

Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus afarensis, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens

27

What do the discoveries in the Awash River valley suggest about the environment where bipedalism appeared in early hominids?

Early hominids may have lived in wooded regions along lakes, as well as on the savanna

28

The term Oldowan refers to:

The earliest stone tools found in Africa

29

Which of the following was a contemporary hominid with Australopithecus, but had significantly increased cranial capacity?

Homo habilis

30

What makes the Acheulian stone tools associated with Homo erectus different than those made by earlier hominids?

These tools were of a greater variety and accomplished a wider range of task