Flashcards in chapter 5 Integumentary Deck (264):
When we shed our skin, it comes off in sheets because of which cell junction?
There is stratified squamous epithelium found in the epidermis of our skin and in our mouth, what is the difference between these areas?
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium found in epidermis
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium found in mouth
What body system is the largest?
What two things do keratinocytes produce?
keratin and lamella granules (lipids inside)
What does integument mean?
About what percentage of body weight is your skin alone?
~ 7% (10-11 lbs)
Name the two Major components of the Cutaneous Membrane (Skin)
What is the Epidermis composed of?
Which type of tissue is the Dermis composed of?
Does the epidermis have blood vessels?
no, it is avascular
Is the Dermis Avascular or vascular?
What is considered the superficial layer of the cutaneous membrane?
What do Ceruminous Glands produce?
What do Sebaceous Glands produce?
Name the two types of Sudoriferous (sweat) Glands
When do Apocrine Glands start working?
When someone reaches puberty
Where are Ceruminous Glands found?
Which Sweat Gland produces a milkier sweat?
Where are Merocrine sweat glands found
almost everywhere except for the lips
What is the primary function of Merocrine sweat glands?
to help us cool down
Where on the body would you find Apocrine Sweat Glands?
armpit, groin, rectum
Which type of Sweat does Bacteria love?
What are hair, nails, and exocrine glands all considered?
At what layer, epidermis, dermis, or hypodermis, do we find fat (adipose cells)?
Which type of sensory receptor, Lamellated (pacinian) corpuscle or Meissner Corpuscle are deeper in the skin?
Lamellated (pacinian) Corpuscle
Which type of corpuscle is found in the Dermal papillae/papillary region (dermis)?
What is the other name for Meissner's Corpuscles?
What is another name for Merkel Cells?
Tactile epithelial cells
Which Strata of the skin is the innermost strata and is known as Germinativum?
Which Stratum of the skin is clear/white, made of protein and only present in thick skin (palms of hands, soles of feet)?
Which part of the Cutaneous Membrane is known as the Superficial Epithelium?
Name the most predominant epithelial cell found in the epidermis
What happens to the keratin as we get closer and closer to the superficial layer (epidermis)
the keratin gets thicker, more dense, and becomes more organized
Name all five Strata found in the Cutaneous Membrane in order from the innermost to the most superficial (starting deep, moving superficially)
* Stratum Basale (innermost)
* Stratum Spinosum
* Stratum Granulosum
* Stratum Lucidum
* Stratum Corneum (outermost)
Which Strata of the Cutaneous Membrane is 1 layer thick and has actively dividing keratinocytes?
Name the two types of specialized cells found in the Stratum Basale
* Merkel Cells (Tactile epitelial cells)
Which type of specialized cells make up 10-25% of the cells found in Stratum Basale ?
Name the two different types of Melanin (pigment)
* Pheomelanin (yellow-brown)
* Eumelanin (brown-black)
What is the Melanin protecting inside of the nucleus when it covers it like an umbrella?
Once cells are in the epidermal ridge, they go from dividing laterally to __________, which causes the older cells to get pushed up. (mitosis is occuring)
While cells are moving down the Dermal Papilla, moving toward the epidermal ridge, they are dividing _________.
What happens to the Stratum Basale in the disease Epidermolysis Bullosa?
it cannot remain anchored to the basement membrane
Which part of a neuron is the Merkel Disc? (input, receiving end)
Which type of specialized cell is found scattered throughout the stratum basale, does not use hemidesmosomes, and is shaped like an octopus?
Which type of specialized cell found in Stratum Basale is a special neuroepithelium?
Merkel Cells (Tactile epithelial cells)
What are basal cells?
Which type of specialized cell is the least numerous of the epidermal cells, is sensitive to touch, and found in the fingertips, lips, and external genitalia?
In Which Strata of the Cutaneous Membrane do the cells transition from cells that are metabolically active to cells that are dying?
What two things make up the Cutaneous Membrane?
Epidermis and Dermis
Is Stratum Lucidum found in thin skin or thick skin?
What does the Integumentary system include?
Hair, Skin, Nails, sweat glands, oil glands, sensory receptors
What types of tissue does the Sub Q (subcutaneous) layer consist of
(hint: 2 kinds)
Areolar and Adipose tissues
The subcutaneous layer stores ___.
The blood vessels found in the Sub Q are large.
true or false?
The Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis), sometimes contains nerve endings that are sensitive to pressure. What are these nerve endings (sensory receptors) called?
lamellated corpuscles (pacinian corpuscles)
Name the Specialized cells found in the Stratum Spinosum
Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
The Dendritic (Langerhans) Cells are highly phagocytic (engulf bacteria, debris etc.)
True or False?
Which type of melanin produces the darkest colors of skintone?
In the Stratum Basale, within the keratinocytes, are scattered keratin intermediate filaments called what?
Do Melanocytes have lots of extensions to reach out and touch?
In the Stratum Spinosum there are 8-10 layers of keratinocytes bound together by which cell junction that keeps individual skin cells buttoned together?
Are Dendritic (Langerhans) cells active in immune response?
What word describes the death of a cell that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organisms growth or development?
In which Strata do the keratinocytes begin apoptosis?
In which Strata of the skin does the thickened Plasma Membrane become the cell envelope that has lipids attaching to it?
In which strata do the keratinocytes stop producing keratin?
What is the name of the cross-linked protein structures found in granules in the Stratum Granulosum of the epidermis that help promote further dehydration of the keratinocytes and convert keratin intermediate filaments into keratin?
Which Strata of the epidermis is the exposed surface of the skin?
Stratum Corneum "the horny or cornified layer"
The Stratum Corneum is composed of 15-30+ layers of dead keratinized cells that have no nuclei, and no organelles, just sacs of keratin on most superficial layer.
true or false
About how often are the Stratum Corneum's dead keratinized cells shed and replaced ?
~ 2 weeks
2nd to the Stratum Corneum, which Strata has the most layers of cells?
Stratum Spinosum (8-10 layers)
When the membrane-enclosed lamellar granules are being discharged from the keratinocytes at the Stratum Granulosum Layer, they release _____-____ __________ that end up attaching to the cell envelope
(part of dehydration process before reaching outermost layer)
Which Epidermal Strata is composed of a single row of cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes?
Name the 4 Principal cell types in the Epidermis
3. Intraepidermal macrophage (Langerhans) cell
4. Tactile epithelial (Merkel) cell
Which Strata is the melanocyte found in?
The Cell Envelope is filled with thick bundles of what?
Which type of skin makes up the majority of the superficial epithelium, thick skin or thin skin?
Thick Skin is composed of how many Strata?
In which type of skin is the Dermis thinner? Thick skin or Thin Skin?
Thick skin,because there are more layers of epidermis and a thicker stratum spinosum and corneum
Where is thick skin found on the body?
fingertips, toes, soles of feet, palms of hands
What 3 things does thick skin not contain?
*hair follicles (and arrector pili muscle)
Which has denser Sensory receptors, thin skin or thick skin?
Which has more epidermal ridges, thick skin or thin skin?
(due to well-developed dermal papillae organized in parallel rows)
Where would you find Apocrine Sweat?
rectum, groin, axillary
Keratinization is also known as what?
Keratinization occurs on all exposed skin surfaces except for where?
except the eyes
The formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled with keratin
What type of perspiration is it when water is excreted by sweat glands? Losing water we are aware of?
Name the 2 factors involved in Skin Coloration
* Epidermal Pigmentation
* Dermal Circulation
If you were to lose water through a blister on the skin (damage to the stratum corneum), what type of perspiration would that be?
Can burn victims retain water?
What type of Epidermal pigment can be converted to Vitamin A and is required for the synthesis of photoreceptor pigments in the eye
(hint: found in carrots)
A Callus is a thickened area of skin made up of lots of Stratum _______.
How many weeks does it take for a cell to move from the stratum basale to stratum corneum and ultimately shed?
Where is Carotene found in the skin?
*epidermal cells in stratum corneum
* adipose tissues in the deep dermis and subQ layer
Does Melanin protect skin?
The nipple, scrotum of males, and labia majora of females have a higher concentration of ___________ versus most other areas of the body.
Does skin pigmentation depend on melanin production, or the number of melanocytes?
What type of blood contributes to skin color?
oxygenated red blood
What is it called when excessive, abnormal redness occurs on the skin?
(opposite of pale)
Erythema (equals more blood flow)
When blood flow decreases, the skin pales. What is this called?
bluish skin tint due to extreme cold or oxygenation
(very apparent in thick skins, lips, under nails)
What do you call the Melanocytes network of branches?
What are Lamellar Bodies (Lamellar granules) made of?
stacks of lipids
What is the cell envelope made of?
What type of lipids attach to it?
intercellular lipids ( lipids from inside of lamellar bodies)
What is the Merkel disc?
part of a neuron, the dendrite
Name the 4 Mesenchymal cells
( C. T. stemcells)
Does melanin synthesis accelerate quickly or slowly?
When you have jaundice, which organ is usually not functioning properly?
Biilirubin levels are high when you have ________.
A Pituitary Tumor can lead to the overproduction of MSH which leads too darkening of the skin. What is MSH?
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
Which gland does Addison's disease effect directly?
Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder.
true or false
a new and abnormal growth of tissue
(especially as a characteristic of cancer)
Are Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma aggressive, or not very aggressive?
not very aggressive
What makes Malignant Melanoma so aggressive and easy to metastasize?
*close to dermis
* lots of blood vessels (super highway for cancer)
What do A,B,C, and D represent when examining moles on the skin?
What hormone do you need to be able to absorb calcium and phosphate?
Insufficient vitamin D3 can cause rickets. What is rickets?
What is the name of the powerful peptide growth factor that is used in labs to grow skin grafts?
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)
What time in a woman's life is the best time to build healthy strong bones?
before menopause, when estrogen is present
The Dermis of the Cutaneous Membrane is divided into 2 layers, name them
What percentage of the Dermis is made up of Papillary Layer (superficial layer)?
What percentage of the Dermis is made up of Reticular Layer?
Which Layer of the Dermis has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridges?
What is dermatitis?
inflammation of the skin
Which layer of the dermis is primarily effected with dermatitis?
Which layer of the Dermis consists of dense irregular C.T.?
Reticular Layer (deeper layer)
What type of tissue makes up the papillary layer of the dermis?
Which layer of the Dermis would have hair follicles, large blood vessels, nerve fibers, sebaceous glands and sudoriferous glands?
What do fibroblasts produce more of, collagen fibers or elastic fibers?
Name the 2 fibers responsible for the strength, extensibility, and elasticity of the skin
* Collagen Fibers
* Elastic Fibers
What is really happening when you get a stretch mark?
the epidermis and dermis tear
Which mode of secretion is responsible for thermoregulation?
What type of pH does your skin have?
The darker your skin, the harder it is to synthesize vitamin D so you have to expose skin longer.
true or false?
What is the sign used by healthcare providers to assess fluid loss or dehydration when dealing with the skin?
What four things cause sagging and wrinkles (reduced skin elasticity)?
What is the medical name for stretch marks?
Why are stretch marks (striae) red at first?
because blood vessels are busting
What are lines of cleavage (tension lines)?
lines that show the angle and direction that the collagen fibers are going. (you should always cut with the lines for something to heal up well)
What is the Cutaneous Plexus?
Blood vessels in the subQ that branch into the reticular layer, that supply both the adipose tissue of the subQ and tissues of the integument
What is the papillary plexus and where is it located?
a capillary network (branches) from small arteries in the papillary layer of the dermis. It follows the contours of the epidermis-dermis boundary
What do you call damage to blood vessels resulting in black and blue bruising?
What controls blood flow and Gland secretions in the skin?
Which Sensory receptor is found in the papillary layer of the dermis and is responsible for "Light touch"
tactile corpuscles (Meissner's corpuscles)
Which Sensory Receptor is located in the reticular layer of the dermis and is responsible for sensing "deep pressure" and "vibrations"
lamellated corpuscles (Pacinian Corpuscles)
Root Hair Plexus= free nerve endings (dendrites), surrounding hair root.
true or false?
The Cutaneous plexus is located in the Subcutaneous layer.
true or false
What is it called when blood vessels constrict?
Which type of sweat is responsible for thermoregulation?
What waterproofs and lubricates the skin and hair of mammals?
Keratin and lipids (inside of lamellar bodies) keep water where?
in the skin
The sun kickstarts a process that converts a vitamin D precursor into the active form your body needs.
true or false
Sebum contains bactericidal chemicals and keeps hair and nails from ______ ___.
Is the hypodermis part of the Integument?
The Hypodermis consists of which 3 tissues?
The Hypodermis is connected to which specific layer of the Integument by interwoven C.T. fibers?
Which region of the hypodermis is the only region that contains Large Arteries and Veins?
only the superficial region
The Hypodermis is the site of Subcutaneous injections using __________ needles.
What is the common name for Decubitis Ulcers?
What are bedsores the result of?
compression of the blood vessels that supply the skin
(effects both epidermis and dermis)
What does the Arrector pili muscle do to cause hair to stand upright?
What is the purpose of hair standing on end when you're cold?
hair helps trap body heat
What type of muscle tissue are the arrector pili muscle?
(involuntary) smooth muscle
Where is the hair follicle located?
deep in the dermis
The base of the hair follicle is surrounded by sensory nerves which make up the ____ ____ ______.
root hair plexus
Do Sebaceous Glands help control bacteria?
Which region of the hair is attached to the integument? The hair root or the hair shaft?
What is the name for the outermost surface shingle-like layer of the hair shaft that is considered the "stratum corneum" of the hair?
The hair bulb produces the ____ ______.
Name the central core of the hair shaft and hair root structure.
Growing hair is firmly attached to the hair matrix where what type of cells are actively dividing?
What is the name for a hair that is attached to an inactive follicle?
List the two types of hairs
* Vellus hairs
* Terminal hairs
What does the hair papilla contain?
(2 things primarily)
When can vellus hair transition to terminal hair?
puberty, under the influence of testosterone
Which stage is the growth stage of the hair cycle?
In which stage of the hair growth cycle does apoptosis and regression take place?
Which stage of the hair growth cycle is the resting stage?
In the Early Anagen stage, a new hair is birthed from the dermal papilla and pushes the old club hair out.
true or false?
What is the name for the sebaceous gland that is a stand-alone, not associated with a hair follicle, that discharges product directly onto skins surface?
Which mode of secretion is associated with Sebaceous Glands?
The brain can dictate where and when these types of sweat glands are active
Merocrine Sweat Glands
Which mode of secretion or type of sweat gland is said to possibly be associated with pheromones?
Apocrine Sweat Glands
Which are smaller, Merocrine or Apocrine Sweat Glands?
Which type of sweat gland is found deeper in the dermis, Merocrine or Apocrine?
What type of specialized cells are found surrounding the secretory cells in Apocrine Sweat Glands, that are responsible for contracting and squeezing the gland?
Name the Integumentary Exocrine Gland that Produces Milk, and the one that produces Cerumen (earwax)
* Mammary glands
* Ceruminous glands
What system controls sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands?
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
What is the main function of Sensible Perspiration (sweating)?
Which type of sweat gland is controlled independently and sweating occurs locally?
Merocrine Sweat Glands
Can Metabolic disorders change the structure of a nail?
What are nails made of?
dead cells packed with keratin
What is the medical name for the cuticle of the nail?
What is another name for the nail body?
What is the skin below the nail plate called ?
The Eponychium (cuticle) is an extension of which Strata of the epidermis?
What is the name of the part of the nail that is the epithelium proximal to the nail root, that contains dividing keratinocytes that produce new nail cells?
What is the name for the thick white part of the nail found in front of the eponychium, that is shaped like a crescent?
Name the 2 parts of the nail that shield bacteria from getting in
Which part of the nail secures the nail to the fingertip and is an extension of the stratum corneum directly above the epidermis?
What is the visible portion of the nail that covers the nail bed called?
Nail Body (Nail Plate)
The sides of the nail lie in lateral nail grooves surrounded by lateral nail folds.
true or false?
What is the skin beneath the distal free edge of the nail called?
Where does a visible nail emerge from?
from the eponychium at the tip of the proximal nail fold
What is the name of the bone of the fingertip?
In which type of wound healing is there scar tissue and fibroblasts involved?
Deep wound healing
Which type of wound healing starts with the stratum basale cells dividing and then migrating across the wound?
epidermal wound healing
What is the name for an infection on the skins surface caused by Staphylococcus and Streptococcus bacteria?
What is the active form of Vitamin D?
What is the name for the Integument disorder that is a rash characterized by inflamed, itchy, dry, scaly, or irritated skin?
What is the medical name for the spontaneous separation of the nail plate (nail lifting)?
Name the skin infection that involves a group of hair follicles and is clusters of boils
Name the skin infection that involves 1 entire hair follicle and a boil
What happens to the keratinocytes when we start aging?
they slow down and aren't dividing as quickly
(causing a thinning epidermis)
Deep to the skin is the ____________ layer that attaches the dermis to underlying fascia.
Which 2 types of C.T. does the subcutaneous layer consist of?
Areolar and Adipose tissue
Fibers that extend from the dermis, anchor the skin to the subcutaneous layer.
true or false?
Where are lamellated corpuscles found?
the subQ and (sometimes the dermis)
90% of epidermal cells are _____________.
The long slender projections of the melanocytes extend between the keratinocytes and transfer what?
Where do the intraepidermal macrophages (Langerhans cells) arise from before they migrate to get to the epidermis?
Red Bone Marrow
Who's job is it to help other cells of the immune system recognize an invading microbe and destroy it?
intraepidermal macrophages (Langerhans cells)
Name the cell that is the least numerous of the epidermal cells, is located in the deepest layer of epidermis where it contacts the flattened process of a nerve cell called the tactile disc (Merkel disc)
Tactile epithelial cells
keratinocytes are found in every Strata of the epidermis.
true or false?
In which strata can you find keratinocytes with Large nuclei, and a cytoplasm with many ribosomes, a small golgi complex, a few mitochondria, and some rough ER?
New skin cannot regenerate if an injury destroys a large area of stratum basale and it's ____ _____
When skin transplant is taken from the same individual in need it is called what?
When a skin transplant is taken from an identical twin it is called what?
During apoptosis in the stratum granulosum, what happens to the nucleus before the cell dies?
Membrane-enclosed Lamellar granules release lipid-rich secretions that are deposited in between cells of which 3 strata in the epidermis?
Nutrients and Oxygen diffuse to the avascular epidermis from _____ _______ in the dermis.
Which Strata of the epidermis contains 4-6 layers of dead flattened clear keratinocytes that are full of keratin and thickened plasma membranes?
What is an excessive amount of keratinized cells shed from the skin of the scalp called?
In which chronic skin disorder do immature keratinocytes make an abnormal keratin, which forms flaky silvery scales at the skin surface mostly on knees, elbows, and scalp?
What is the dermis composed of?
Dense irregular C.T. containing collagen and elastic fibers
The papillary region of the dermis has a surface area that is greatly increased by what?
Name the small nipple-shaped structures that project into the undersurface of the epidermis.
What do you call the blood vessels that all dermal papillae contain?
Which of the 2 regions of the dermis is arranged in a net-like manner that has bundles of large/thick collagen fibers in a regular arrangement with blood vessels, glands, hair follicles, and nerves occupying the space between them?
Reticular Region (layer)
What is another name for a line of cleavage?
Do liver spots have anything to do with the liver?
What is another name for a mole?
In what organelle does synthesis of melanin occur?
Carotene is a precursor of vitamin _.
The shape of the hair _____ plays a role in whether your hair is straight, wavy, or curly.
What are split ends on hair made of?
The Hair papillae and the dermal papillae are close to identical in structure and function.
true or false
Hair growth occurs in how many stages?
Are the keratinocytes found in the hair matrix the same as those found in the stratum basale?
What Connective tissue type is found in both the dermal papillae and the hair papillae?
If _____ ____ is cut off from the hair papilla and hair matrix, the hair follicle dies.
Are Melanocytes found in the hair matrix and the stratum basale?
Is the hair shaft part of the hair follicle?
What percentage of surface area does a burnt genitalia (perineum) region account for?
What percentage of body surface area does a burnt thoracic and abdominopelvic region account for?
(ant. 18%, pos. 18%)
What percentage of body surface area does 1 burnt lower limb (leg) account for?
(ant. 9%, pos. 9%)
What degree of burn affects the entire epidermis and some dermis?
What degree of burn affects the entire epidermis, the entire dermis, and some subcutaneous?
If fungus gets into the nail matrix, what happens to the nail?
What is the production of blood cells and platelets that occurs in the red bone marrow called?
hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis