chapter 5 Integumentary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 5 Integumentary Deck (264):
1

When we shed our skin, it comes off in sheets because of which cell junction?

Desmosomes

2

There is stratified squamous epithelium found in the epidermis of our skin and in our mouth, what is the difference between these areas?

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium found in epidermis
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium found in mouth

3

What body system is the largest?

Integumentary System

4

What two things do keratinocytes produce?

keratin and lamella granules (lipids inside)

5

What does integument mean?

covering

6

About what percentage of body weight is your skin alone?

~ 7% (10-11 lbs)

7

Name the two Major components of the Cutaneous Membrane (Skin)

* Epidermis
* Dermis

8

What is the Epidermis composed of?

epithelial tissue

9

Which type of tissue is the Dermis composed of?

Connective Tissue

10

Does the epidermis have blood vessels?

no, it is avascular

11

Is the Dermis Avascular or vascular?

Vascular

12

What is considered the superficial layer of the cutaneous membrane?

epidermis

13

What do Ceruminous Glands produce?

Cerumen (wax)

14

What do Sebaceous Glands produce?

Sebum (oil)

15

Name the two types of Sudoriferous (sweat) Glands

Merocrine (Eccrine)
Apocine

16

When do Apocrine Glands start working?

When someone reaches puberty

17

Where are Ceruminous Glands found?

Ear Canal

18

Which Sweat Gland produces a milkier sweat?

Apocrine

19

Where are Merocrine sweat glands found

almost everywhere except for the lips

20

What is the primary function of Merocrine sweat glands?

to help us cool down

21

Where on the body would you find Apocrine Sweat Glands?

armpit, groin, rectum

22

Which type of Sweat does Bacteria love?

apocrine sweat

23

What are hair, nails, and exocrine glands all considered?

Accessory Structures

24

At what layer, epidermis, dermis, or hypodermis, do we find fat (adipose cells)?

hypodermis (subcutaneous)

25

Which type of sensory receptor, Lamellated (pacinian) corpuscle or Meissner Corpuscle are deeper in the skin?

Lamellated (pacinian) Corpuscle

26

Which type of corpuscle is found in the Dermal papillae/papillary region (dermis)?

Meissner's corpuscles

27

What is the other name for Meissner's Corpuscles?

Tactile Corpuscles

28

What is another name for Merkel Cells?

Tactile epithelial cells

29

Which Strata of the skin is the innermost strata and is known as Germinativum?

Stratum Basale

30

Which Stratum of the skin is clear/white, made of protein and only present in thick skin (palms of hands, soles of feet)?

Stratum Lucidum

31

Which part of the Cutaneous Membrane is known as the Superficial Epithelium?

Epidermis

32

Name the most predominant epithelial cell found in the epidermis

keratinocytes

33

What happens to the keratin as we get closer and closer to the superficial layer (epidermis)

the keratin gets thicker, more dense, and becomes more organized

34

Name all five Strata found in the Cutaneous Membrane in order from the innermost to the most superficial (starting deep, moving superficially)

* Stratum Basale (innermost)
* Stratum Spinosum
* Stratum Granulosum
* Stratum Lucidum
* Stratum Corneum (outermost)

35

Which Strata of the Cutaneous Membrane is 1 layer thick and has actively dividing keratinocytes?

Stratum Basale

36

Name the two types of specialized cells found in the Stratum Basale

* Merkel Cells (Tactile epitelial cells)
* Melanocytes

37

Which type of specialized cells make up 10-25% of the cells found in Stratum Basale ?

Melanocytes

38

Name the two different types of Melanin (pigment)

* Pheomelanin (yellow-brown)
* Eumelanin (brown-black)

39

What is the Melanin protecting inside of the nucleus when it covers it like an umbrella?

DNA

40

Once cells are in the epidermal ridge, they go from dividing laterally to __________, which causes the older cells to get pushed up. (mitosis is occuring)

vertically

41

While cells are moving down the Dermal Papilla, moving toward the epidermal ridge, they are dividing _________.

laterally

42

What happens to the Stratum Basale in the disease Epidermolysis Bullosa?

it cannot remain anchored to the basement membrane

43

Which part of a neuron is the Merkel Disc? (input, receiving end)

the dendrite

44

Which type of specialized cell is found scattered throughout the stratum basale, does not use hemidesmosomes, and is shaped like an octopus?

Melanocyte

45

Which type of specialized cell found in Stratum Basale is a special neuroepithelium?

Merkel Cells (Tactile epithelial cells)

46

What are basal cells?

dividing cells

47

Which type of specialized cell is the least numerous of the epidermal cells, is sensitive to touch, and found in the fingertips, lips, and external genitalia?

Merkel cells

48

In Which Strata of the Cutaneous Membrane do the cells transition from cells that are metabolically active to cells that are dying?

Stratum Granulosum

49

What two things make up the Cutaneous Membrane?

Epidermis and Dermis

50

Is Stratum Lucidum found in thin skin or thick skin?

Thick Skin

51

What does the Integumentary system include?

Hair, Skin, Nails, sweat glands, oil glands, sensory receptors

52

What types of tissue does the Sub Q (subcutaneous) layer consist of
(hint: 2 kinds)

Areolar and Adipose tissues

53

The subcutaneous layer stores ___.

Fat

54

The blood vessels found in the Sub Q are large.
true or false?

true

55

The Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis), sometimes contains nerve endings that are sensitive to pressure. What are these nerve endings (sensory receptors) called?

lamellated corpuscles (pacinian corpuscles)

56

Name the Specialized cells found in the Stratum Spinosum

Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
(Intraepidermal Macrophage)

57

The Dendritic (Langerhans) Cells are highly phagocytic (engulf bacteria, debris etc.)
True or False?

true

58

Which type of melanin produces the darkest colors of skintone?

Eumelanin

59

In the Stratum Basale, within the keratinocytes, are scattered keratin intermediate filaments called what?

tonofilaments

60

Do Melanocytes have lots of extensions to reach out and touch?

yes

61

In the Stratum Spinosum there are 8-10 layers of keratinocytes bound together by which cell junction that keeps individual skin cells buttoned together?

desmosomes

62

Are Dendritic (Langerhans) cells active in immune response?

yes

63

What word describes the death of a cell that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organisms growth or development?

apoptosis

64

In which Strata do the keratinocytes begin apoptosis?

Stratum Granulosum

65

In which Strata of the skin does the thickened Plasma Membrane become the cell envelope that has lipids attaching to it?

Stratum Granulosum

66

In which strata do the keratinocytes stop producing keratin?

Stratum Granulosum

67

What is the name of the cross-linked protein structures found in granules in the Stratum Granulosum of the epidermis that help promote further dehydration of the keratinocytes and convert keratin intermediate filaments into keratin?

Keratohyalin

68

Which Strata of the epidermis is the exposed surface of the skin?

Stratum Corneum "the horny or cornified layer"

69

The Stratum Corneum is composed of 15-30+ layers of dead keratinized cells that have no nuclei, and no organelles, just sacs of keratin on most superficial layer.
true or false

true

70

About how often are the Stratum Corneum's dead keratinized cells shed and replaced ?

~ 2 weeks

71

2nd to the Stratum Corneum, which Strata has the most layers of cells?

Stratum Spinosum (8-10 layers)

72

When the membrane-enclosed lamellar granules are being discharged from the keratinocytes at the Stratum Granulosum Layer, they release _____-____ __________ that end up attaching to the cell envelope
(part of dehydration process before reaching outermost layer)

lipid-rich secretions

73

Which Epidermal Strata is composed of a single row of cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes?

Stratum Basale

74

Name the 4 Principal cell types in the Epidermis

1. Keratinocyte
2. Melanocyte
3. Intraepidermal macrophage (Langerhans) cell
4. Tactile epithelial (Merkel) cell

75

Which Strata is the melanocyte found in?

Stratum Basale

76

The Cell Envelope is filled with thick bundles of what?

keratin

77

Which type of skin makes up the majority of the superficial epithelium, thick skin or thin skin?

thin skin

78

Thick Skin is composed of how many Strata?

5

79

In which type of skin is the Dermis thinner? Thick skin or Thin Skin?

Thick skin,because there are more layers of epidermis and a thicker stratum spinosum and corneum

80

Where is thick skin found on the body?

fingertips, toes, soles of feet, palms of hands

81

What 3 things does thick skin not contain?

*hair follicles (and arrector pili muscle)
*Sebaceous Glands
*apocrine sweat

82

Which has denser Sensory receptors, thin skin or thick skin?

thick skin

83

Which has more epidermal ridges, thick skin or thin skin?

thick skin
(due to well-developed dermal papillae organized in parallel rows)

84

Where would you find Apocrine Sweat?

rectum, groin, axillary

85

Keratinization is also known as what?

Cornification
(hint: corneum)

86

Keratinization occurs on all exposed skin surfaces except for where?

except the eyes

87

Define Keratinization

The formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled with keratin

88

What type of perspiration is it when water is excreted by sweat glands? Losing water we are aware of?

Sensible Perspiration

89

Name the 2 factors involved in Skin Coloration

* Epidermal Pigmentation
* Dermal Circulation

90

If you were to lose water through a blister on the skin (damage to the stratum corneum), what type of perspiration would that be?

insensible perspiration

91

Can burn victims retain water?

no

92

What type of Epidermal pigment can be converted to Vitamin A and is required for the synthesis of photoreceptor pigments in the eye
(hint: found in carrots)

Carotene

93

A Callus is a thickened area of skin made up of lots of Stratum _______.

Stratum Corneum

94

How many weeks does it take for a cell to move from the stratum basale to stratum corneum and ultimately shed?

4-6 weeks

95

Where is Carotene found in the skin?

*epidermal cells in stratum corneum
* adipose tissues in the deep dermis and subQ layer

96

Does Melanin protect skin?

yes

97

The nipple, scrotum of males, and labia majora of females have a higher concentration of ___________ versus most other areas of the body.

melanocytes

98

Does skin pigmentation depend on melanin production, or the number of melanocytes?

melanin production

99

What type of blood contributes to skin color?

oxygenated red blood

100

What is it called when excessive, abnormal redness occurs on the skin?
(opposite of pale)

Erythema (equals more blood flow)

101

When blood flow decreases, the skin pales. What is this called?

Pallor

102

define Cyanosis

bluish skin tint due to extreme cold or oxygenation
(very apparent in thick skins, lips, under nails)

103

What do you call the Melanocytes network of branches?

cutaneous plexus

104

What are Lamellar Bodies (Lamellar granules) made of?

stacks of lipids

105

What is the cell envelope made of?
What type of lipids attach to it?

keratin
intercellular lipids ( lipids from inside of lamellar bodies)

106

What is the Merkel disc?

part of a neuron, the dendrite

107

Name the 4 Mesenchymal cells
( C. T. stemcells)

* fibroblasts
* Chondroblasts
* Osteoblasts
* Hematopoietic

108

Does melanin synthesis accelerate quickly or slowly?

slowly

109

When you have jaundice, which organ is usually not functioning properly?

liver

110

Biilirubin levels are high when you have ________.

jaundice

111

A Pituitary Tumor can lead to the overproduction of MSH which leads too darkening of the skin. What is MSH?

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

112

Which gland does Addison's disease effect directly?

Pituitary Gland

113

Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder.
true or false

true

114

define neoplasm

a new and abnormal growth of tissue
(especially as a characteristic of cancer)

115

Are Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma aggressive, or not very aggressive?

not very aggressive

116

What makes Malignant Melanoma so aggressive and easy to metastasize?

*close to dermis
* lots of blood vessels (super highway for cancer)

117

What do A,B,C, and D represent when examining moles on the skin?

A- Asymmetry
B- Border
C- Color
D- Diameter

118

What hormone do you need to be able to absorb calcium and phosphate?

Vitamin D

119

Insufficient vitamin D3 can cause rickets. What is rickets?

soft bones

120

What is the name of the powerful peptide growth factor that is used in labs to grow skin grafts?

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

121

What time in a woman's life is the best time to build healthy strong bones?

before menopause, when estrogen is present

122

The Dermis of the Cutaneous Membrane is divided into 2 layers, name them

*Papillary Layer
*Reticular Layer

123

What percentage of the Dermis is made up of Papillary Layer (superficial layer)?

20%

124

What percentage of the Dermis is made up of Reticular Layer?

80%

125

Which Layer of the Dermis has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridges?

Papillary Layer

126

What is dermatitis?

inflammation of the skin

127

Which layer of the dermis is primarily effected with dermatitis?

papillary layer

128

Which layer of the Dermis consists of dense irregular C.T.?

Reticular Layer (deeper layer)

129

What type of tissue makes up the papillary layer of the dermis?

Areolar tissue

130

Which layer of the Dermis would have hair follicles, large blood vessels, nerve fibers, sebaceous glands and sudoriferous glands?

Reticular Layer

131

What do fibroblasts produce more of, collagen fibers or elastic fibers?

collagen fibers

132

Name the 2 fibers responsible for the strength, extensibility, and elasticity of the skin

* Collagen Fibers
* Elastic Fibers

133

What is really happening when you get a stretch mark?

the epidermis and dermis tear

134

Which mode of secretion is responsible for thermoregulation?

Merocrine (eccrine)

135

What type of pH does your skin have?

Acidic pH

136

The darker your skin, the harder it is to synthesize vitamin D so you have to expose skin longer.
true or false?

true

137

What is the sign used by healthcare providers to assess fluid loss or dehydration when dealing with the skin?

skin turgor

138

What four things cause sagging and wrinkles (reduced skin elasticity)?

*Dehydration
*Age
*Hormonal changes
*UV exposure

139

What is the medical name for stretch marks?

striae

140

Why are stretch marks (striae) red at first?

because blood vessels are busting

141

What are lines of cleavage (tension lines)?

lines that show the angle and direction that the collagen fibers are going. (you should always cut with the lines for something to heal up well)

142

define plexus

network

143

What is the Cutaneous Plexus?

Blood vessels in the subQ that branch into the reticular layer, that supply both the adipose tissue of the subQ and tissues of the integument

144

What is the papillary plexus and where is it located?

a capillary network (branches) from small arteries in the papillary layer of the dermis. It follows the contours of the epidermis-dermis boundary

145

What do you call damage to blood vessels resulting in black and blue bruising?

contusion

146

What controls blood flow and Gland secretions in the skin?

Nerve fibers

147

Which Sensory receptor is found in the papillary layer of the dermis and is responsible for "Light touch"

tactile corpuscles (Meissner's corpuscles)

148

Which Sensory Receptor is located in the reticular layer of the dermis and is responsible for sensing "deep pressure" and "vibrations"

lamellated corpuscles (Pacinian Corpuscles)

149

Root Hair Plexus= free nerve endings (dendrites), surrounding hair root.
true or false?

true

150

The Cutaneous plexus is located in the Subcutaneous layer.
true or false

true

151

What is it called when blood vessels constrict?

vasoconstriction

152

Which type of sweat is responsible for thermoregulation?

Merocrine (Eccrine)

153

What waterproofs and lubricates the skin and hair of mammals?

Sebum

154

Keratin and lipids (inside of lamellar bodies) keep water where?

in the skin

155

The sun kickstarts a process that converts a vitamin D precursor into the active form your body needs.
true or false

true

156

Sebum contains bactericidal chemicals and keeps hair and nails from ______ ___.

drying out

157

Is the hypodermis part of the Integument?

no

158

The Hypodermis consists of which 3 tissues?

*elastic
*areolar
*adipose

159

The Hypodermis is connected to which specific layer of the Integument by interwoven C.T. fibers?

reticular layer

160

Which region of the hypodermis is the only region that contains Large Arteries and Veins?

only the superficial region

161

The Hypodermis is the site of Subcutaneous injections using __________ needles.

hypodermic

162

What is the common name for Decubitis Ulcers?

Bedsores

163

What are bedsores the result of?

compression of the blood vessels that supply the skin
(effects both epidermis and dermis)

164

What does the Arrector pili muscle do to cause hair to stand upright?
(goosebumps)

contracts

165

What is the purpose of hair standing on end when you're cold?

hair helps trap body heat

166

What type of muscle tissue are the arrector pili muscle?

(involuntary) smooth muscle

167

Where is the hair follicle located?

deep in the dermis

168

The base of the hair follicle is surrounded by sensory nerves which make up the ____ ____ ______.

root hair plexus

169

Do Sebaceous Glands help control bacteria?

yes

170

Which region of the hair is attached to the integument? The hair root or the hair shaft?

hair root

171

What is the name for the outermost surface shingle-like layer of the hair shaft that is considered the "stratum corneum" of the hair?

cuticle

172

The hair bulb produces the ____ ______.

hair matrix

173

Name the central core of the hair shaft and hair root structure.

medulla

174

Growing hair is firmly attached to the hair matrix where what type of cells are actively dividing?

keratinocytes

175

What is the name for a hair that is attached to an inactive follicle?

Club Hair

176

List the two types of hairs

* Vellus hairs
* Terminal hairs

177

What does the hair papilla contain?
(2 things primarily)

*capillaries
*nerves

178

When can vellus hair transition to terminal hair?

puberty, under the influence of testosterone

179

Which stage is the growth stage of the hair cycle?

Anagen

180

In which stage of the hair growth cycle does apoptosis and regression take place?

Catagen

181

Which stage of the hair growth cycle is the resting stage?

Telogen

182

In the Early Anagen stage, a new hair is birthed from the dermal papilla and pushes the old club hair out.
true or false?

true

183

What is the name for the sebaceous gland that is a stand-alone, not associated with a hair follicle, that discharges product directly onto skins surface?

Sebaceous Follicle

184

Which mode of secretion is associated with Sebaceous Glands?

Holocrine glands

185

The brain can dictate where and when these types of sweat glands are active

Merocrine Sweat Glands

186

Which mode of secretion or type of sweat gland is said to possibly be associated with pheromones?

Apocrine Sweat Glands

187

Which are smaller, Merocrine or Apocrine Sweat Glands?

Merocrine

188

Which type of sweat gland is found deeper in the dermis, Merocrine or Apocrine?

Apocrine

189

What type of specialized cells are found surrounding the secretory cells in Apocrine Sweat Glands, that are responsible for contracting and squeezing the gland?

Myoepithelial cells

190

Name the Integumentary Exocrine Gland that Produces Milk, and the one that produces Cerumen (earwax)

* Mammary glands
* Ceruminous glands

191

What system controls sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands?

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

192

What is the main function of Sensible Perspiration (sweating)?

Thermoregulation

193

Which type of sweat gland is controlled independently and sweating occurs locally?

Merocrine Sweat Glands

194

Can Metabolic disorders change the structure of a nail?

yes

195

What are nails made of?

dead cells packed with keratin

196

What is the medical name for the cuticle of the nail?

Eponychium

197

What is another name for the nail body?

Nail plate

198

What is the skin below the nail plate called ?
(epidermis)

Nail Bed

199

The Eponychium (cuticle) is an extension of which Strata of the epidermis?

Stratum Corneum

200

What is the name of the part of the nail that is the epithelium proximal to the nail root, that contains dividing keratinocytes that produce new nail cells?

Nail Matrix

201

What is the name for the thick white part of the nail found in front of the eponychium, that is shaped like a crescent?

Lunula

202

Name the 2 parts of the nail that shield bacteria from getting in

Eponychium
Hyponychium

203

Which part of the nail secures the nail to the fingertip and is an extension of the stratum corneum directly above the epidermis?

Hyponychium

204

What is the visible portion of the nail that covers the nail bed called?

Nail Body (Nail Plate)

205

The sides of the nail lie in lateral nail grooves surrounded by lateral nail folds.
true or false?

true

206

What is the skin beneath the distal free edge of the nail called?

hyponychium

207

Where does a visible nail emerge from?

from the eponychium at the tip of the proximal nail fold

208

What is the name of the bone of the fingertip?

Phalanx

209

In which type of wound healing is there scar tissue and fibroblasts involved?

Deep wound healing

210

Which type of wound healing starts with the stratum basale cells dividing and then migrating across the wound?

epidermal wound healing

211

What is the name for an infection on the skins surface caused by Staphylococcus and Streptococcus bacteria?

Impetigo

212

What is the active form of Vitamin D?

vitamin D3

213

What is the name for the Integument disorder that is a rash characterized by inflamed, itchy, dry, scaly, or irritated skin?

Eczema

214

What is the medical name for the spontaneous separation of the nail plate (nail lifting)?

Onycholysis

215

Name the skin infection that involves a group of hair follicles and is clusters of boils

Carbuncle

216

Name the skin infection that involves 1 entire hair follicle and a boil

Furuncle

217

What happens to the keratinocytes when we start aging?

they slow down and aren't dividing as quickly
(causing a thinning epidermis)

218

Deep to the skin is the ____________ layer that attaches the dermis to underlying fascia.

subcutaneous

219

Which 2 types of C.T. does the subcutaneous layer consist of?

Areolar and Adipose tissue

220

Fibers that extend from the dermis, anchor the skin to the subcutaneous layer.
true or false?

true

221

Where are lamellated corpuscles found?

the subQ and (sometimes the dermis)

222

90% of epidermal cells are _____________.

keratinocytes

223

The long slender projections of the melanocytes extend between the keratinocytes and transfer what?

melanin granules

224

Where do the intraepidermal macrophages (Langerhans cells) arise from before they migrate to get to the epidermis?

Red Bone Marrow

225

Who's job is it to help other cells of the immune system recognize an invading microbe and destroy it?

intraepidermal macrophages (Langerhans cells)

226

Name the cell that is the least numerous of the epidermal cells, is located in the deepest layer of epidermis where it contacts the flattened process of a nerve cell called the tactile disc (Merkel disc)

Tactile epithelial cells

227

keratinocytes are found in every Strata of the epidermis.
true or false?

true

228

In which strata can you find keratinocytes with Large nuclei, and a cytoplasm with many ribosomes, a small golgi complex, a few mitochondria, and some rough ER?

Stratum Basale

229

New skin cannot regenerate if an injury destroys a large area of stratum basale and it's ____ _____

stem cells

230

When skin transplant is taken from the same individual in need it is called what?

autograft

231

When a skin transplant is taken from an identical twin it is called what?

isograft

232

During apoptosis in the stratum granulosum, what happens to the nucleus before the cell dies?

it fragments

233

Membrane-enclosed Lamellar granules release lipid-rich secretions that are deposited in between cells of which 3 strata in the epidermis?

*Stratum Granulosum
*Stratum Lucidum
*Stratum Corneum

234

Nutrients and Oxygen diffuse to the avascular epidermis from _____ _______ in the dermis.

blood vessels

235

Which Strata of the epidermis contains 4-6 layers of dead flattened clear keratinocytes that are full of keratin and thickened plasma membranes?

Stratum Lucidum

236

What is an excessive amount of keratinized cells shed from the skin of the scalp called?

dandruff

237

In which chronic skin disorder do immature keratinocytes make an abnormal keratin, which forms flaky silvery scales at the skin surface mostly on knees, elbows, and scalp?

Psoriasis

238

What is the dermis composed of?

Dense irregular C.T. containing collagen and elastic fibers

239

The papillary region of the dermis has a surface area that is greatly increased by what?

Dermal papillae

240

Name the small nipple-shaped structures that project into the undersurface of the epidermis.

Dermal papillae

241

What do you call the blood vessels that all dermal papillae contain?

capillary loops

242

Which of the 2 regions of the dermis is arranged in a net-like manner that has bundles of large/thick collagen fibers in a regular arrangement with blood vessels, glands, hair follicles, and nerves occupying the space between them?

Reticular Region (layer)

243

What is another name for a line of cleavage?

tension lines

244

Do liver spots have anything to do with the liver?

no

245

What is another name for a mole?

nevus

246

In what organelle does synthesis of melanin occur?

melanosomes

247

Carotene is a precursor of vitamin _.

vitamin A

248

The shape of the hair _____ plays a role in whether your hair is straight, wavy, or curly.

shaft

249

What are split ends on hair made of?

keratin

250

The Hair papillae and the dermal papillae are close to identical in structure and function.
true or false

true

251

Hair growth occurs in how many stages?

3

252

Are the keratinocytes found in the hair matrix the same as those found in the stratum basale?

yes

253

What Connective tissue type is found in both the dermal papillae and the hair papillae?

Areolar C.T.

254

If _____ ____ is cut off from the hair papilla and hair matrix, the hair follicle dies.

blood flow

255

Are Melanocytes found in the hair matrix and the stratum basale?

yes

256

Is the hair shaft part of the hair follicle?

no

257

What percentage of surface area does a burnt genitalia (perineum) region account for?

1%

258

What percentage of body surface area does a burnt thoracic and abdominopelvic region account for?

36%
(ant. 18%, pos. 18%)

259

What percentage of body surface area does 1 burnt lower limb (leg) account for?

18%
(ant. 9%, pos. 9%)

260

What degree of burn affects the entire epidermis and some dermis?

2nd degree

261

What degree of burn affects the entire epidermis, the entire dermis, and some subcutaneous?

3rd degree

262

If fungus gets into the nail matrix, what happens to the nail?

it dies

263

What is the production of blood cells and platelets that occurs in the red bone marrow called?

hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis

264

Can our bodies produce calcium?

no, we must consume it (include in diet)