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Flashcards in chapter 5 key terms Deck (53):
1

Argyris, Chris:

developed maturity-immaturity model postulating that traditional organization forms get in the way of workers’ development.

2

behavioral systems theory:

sees organizations as made up of the behavior of individuals and groups, wanted to make organizations more democratic and participative. Founded by Lewin.

3

bifurcation:

the “flash-point” when chaos overcomes normal conditions in an agency and forces it in a new directions in terms of priorities and tactics. See cosmology.

4

buffering:

stores inputs (e.g., gasoline) to avoid disruption of services if supply is interrupted; also see negative entropy.

5

bureaucratic model:

organizational form often called classical, mechanistic, and a closed system; comprised of eight characteristics.

6

business concerns:

owners are the primary beneficiaries.

7

butterfly effect:

small, helpful, self-initiated acts have a ripple effect, causing others to become energized and helpful.

8

chaos theory:

an organizational state of nonequilibrium produced by a crisis event that exceeds anything we can imagine. See cosmology and bifurcation.

9

coding:

to prevent overload, an organization codes or prioritizes messages so that important messages get to the right place quickly; citizens with minor problems wanting to talk to the Chief find themselves redirected and talking to some other official.

10

cognitive maps:

accumulated sense making produces “mental understandings” that help us navigate our world. See sense making.

11

commonweal organizations:

the public at large is the beneficiary (e.g., law enforcement agency).

12

cosmology:

chaos event that overwhelms us; beyond the worse conditions we could imagine; problems of magnitude, complexity, and durability on a scope not seen by us before.

13

decision space:

when elected officials do not provide policy guidance, agencies can formulate their own.

14

double-loop learning:

causes organizations to reconsider whether they are pursuing the right objectives, programs, and policies. See single-loop learning. e-government: provides citizens with on-line access to many governmental services.

15

entropic process:

open systems concept; all organizations face the prospect of moving toward decline, disorganization, and death.

16

equafinality:

there are multiple ways to achieve goals.

17

exception principle:

routine matters should be handled at the lowest possible organizational level that they can be properly addressed, and unusual events, above or below standards, should be brought to the attention of higher-level managers.

18

force-field analysis:

a decision-making tool developed by Lewin. Also see behavioral systems theory.

19

functional supervision:

one person supervises a function, even if it cuts across several organizational units.

20

Gulick, Luther:

coined the most famous acronym of administration: POSDCORB.

21

Hawthorne effect:

people being studied behave differently because they like the attention they get; part of a study by the human relations school at the Hawthorne Electrical Plant.

22

Herzberg, Frederick:

developed motivation-hygiene theory.

23

homeostasis:

when an organization is “in balance.”

24

human relations school:

saw traditional organizational theory as ignoring the human element and sought changes; helped set the stage for the emergence of organizational humanism; see Hawthorne effect.

25

immaturity versus maturity:

see Argyris.

26

internal subsystems:

in open systems theory, the internal unifying forces of an agency that prevent fragmentation of the organization and transform inputs into outputs.

27

isomorphism:

resource-dependent agencies tend to mirror the complexities and demands of their environments; when agencies receive signals from important others, they develop responsive policies and programs.

28

Knapp Commission:

studied corruption in the NYCPD, identifying meat-and grass-eaters.

29

Lewin, Kurt:

founder of behavioral systems theory.

30

Maslow, Abraham:

developed the five-level hierarchy of human needs. McGregor, Douglas: developed Theory X and Theory Y, two contrasting sets of assumptions about workers.

31

motivation-hygiene theory:

two sets of factors, motivators and hygiene; hygiene factors, if met, don’t motivate someone, but unmet they are a source of dissatisfaction. See Herzberg.

32

mutual benefit association:

an association whose primary beneficiary is its members (e.g., a police union).

33

natural soldiering:

the natural inclination of workers not to push themselves.

34

needs hierarchy:

five levels of needs that explain human motivation; see Maslow.

35

negative entropy:

the capacity to resist decline or death, see buffering.

36

networked organizations:

organizations that are heavily dependent on informational technology, often comprised of geographically dispersed units, horizontal communication accounts for most message traffic, their existence is panned and bound together by contract, may be single purpose or continuous in operation. Units are not part of same organization; they are autonomous, but collaborative. See virtual organizations. the capacity to resist decline or death, see buffering.

37

new public management (NPM):

began in 1980s, called for greater use of business practices to achieve greater efficiency.

38

open systems theory:

a grouping of separate, but interdependent components that work together to achieve common goals.

39

organizational development (OD):

a change management process.

40

POSDCORB:

planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting; also see Gulick.

41

rational-legal authority:

authority is granted by the organization to the occupant of a position who uses it to accomplish organizational goals, a Weber-supplied concept.

42

scientific management:

finding the “one best way” to accomplish a task; see F. W. Taylor and traditional organizational theory.

43

sense making:

how people and organizations process their experiences and what they do with them. See cognitive maps.

44

service organizations:

a organization whose specific clientele is the primary beneficiary (e.g. clients of a community health center).

45

single-loop learning:

allows organizations to make corrections and continue operations; see double-loop learning.

46

street-level bureaucrats:

government workers in direct contact with clients who use discretion on how to implement public policy (e.g., police officers and field social workers).

47

systematic soldiering:

keep production rates low so quotas don’t increase.

48

Taylor, F. W.:

father of scientific management.

49

Theory X–Theory Y:

see McGregor.

50

traditional organizational theory:

has three stems, bureaucracy, scientific management, and administrative theory; the centerpiece of organizational theory during 1900–1950.

51

virtual organizations:

organizations that arise spontaneously to an urgent need; there is no planning or contract; participation is voluntary and members can withdraw at any time; there is not a command and control structure; they usually disappear when the single purpose that brought them together is accomplished

52

Weber, Max:

founder of modern sociology whose name is synonymous with bureaucracy.

53

administrative theory:

also called management theory and the principles approach, sought to find “universal” principles of management that could be used in any setting; also see traditional organizational theory.