Chapter 5 MHR 318 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 MHR 318 Deck (53):
1

_____ is a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience

Learning
Operant Conditioning
Antecedents
Shaping

Learning

2

With learning comes _____. with this, it must be relatively permanent

growth
change
wisdom
overall health increase

change

3

how does learning take place?

as a result of practice or through experience

4

_______describes how learning takes place when the learner recognizes the connection between a behavior and its consequences


Learning
Operant Conditioning
Antecedents

Operant conditioning

5

what psychologist was fascinated by operant conditioning?

B.F. Skinner

B.F. Skinner

6

in ______ an individual learns to engage in specific behaviors (such as being responsive to customers needs) in order to receive certain consequences (such as a bonus)

Learning
Operant Conditioning
Antecedents
Shaping

operant conditioning

7

____ are instructions, rules, goals, and advice from other members of the organization that help employees realize what behaviors they should and should not perform and lets them know the likely consequences for different behaviors

Learning
Operant Conditioning
Antecedents
Shaping

Antecedents

8

Operant conditioning focuses on how organizations can use consequences to achieve how many outcomes?

2

9

_____ is the process by which the probability that a desired behavior will occur is increased by applying consequences that depend on the behavior in question.

reinforcement in operant conditioning

10

Positive/Negative reinforcement increases the probability that a behavior will occur by administering good consequences to employees who perform the behavior.

positive

11

Positive/Negative reinforcement increases the probability that a desired behavior will occur by removing, or rescinding, a bad consequence when an employee performs the behavior desired.

negative

12

what is another name for positive/negative consequences?

positive/negative reinforcers

13

Individuals differ in terms of what they consider to be a positive reinforcer. t or f?

true

14

_______ is the reinforcement of successive and closer approximations to a desired behavior

Learning
Operant Conditioning
Antecedents
Shaping

Shaping

15

extinction and punishment are used to ensure that employees do not what?

learn to perform undesired behaviors such as too much web surfing, sexual harassment, and excessive absenteeism

16

Extinction/Punishment refers to removing a consequence that is currently reinforcing an undesirable behavior in an effort to decrease the probability that the behavior will occur again in the future.

Extinction

17

Extinction/Punishment refers to administering negative consequences to workers who perform undesirable behaviors in an effort to decrease the probability that the behavior will occur again in the future.

punishment

18

_____ is important when a desired behavior is unlikely to occur on its own or at any given point in time because an individual does not have the skills and knowledge necessary to perform the behavior or because the behavior can only evolve out of practice or experience.

Learning
Operant Conditioning
Antecedents
Shaping

shaping

19

When using punishment/extinction, try to downplay the emotional element

punishment

20

Negative reinforcement/Punishment reduces the probability of an undesired behavior

punishment

21

Negative reinforcement/Punishment increases the probability of a desired behavior

negative reinforcement

22

Negative reinforcement/Punishment entails removing a negative consequence when a desired behavior occurs

negative reinforcement

23

Negative reinforcement/Punishment involves administering a negative consequence when an undesired behavior occurs

punishment

24

is the systematic application of the principles of operant conditioning for teaching and managing behaviors in an organization

Operant Conditioning
Organizational behavior modification (OB MOD)
Antecedents

Organizational behavior modification (OB MOD)

25

_____ can include introducing antecedents and applying operant conditioning techniques including positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction.

identify
measure
analyze
intervene
evaluate

Interventions

26

When possible, positive reinforcement is preferred to negative reinforcement and extinction is preferred to punishment. t or f?

t

27

A learning theory that takes into account the fact that thoughts and feelings influence learning

social identity theory or social cognitive theory?

social cognitive theory

28

who developed social cognitive theory?

Fredrick W. Taylor or Albert Bandura

albert bandura

29

what is another name for social cognitive theory?

social learning theory

30

_______ has been used successfully to improve productivity, attendance, punctuality, safe work practices, and customer service. It can be used to encourage desired behaviors and discourage undesired behaviors.

Operant Conditioning
Organizational behavior modification (OB MOD)
Antecedents

OB Mod

31

_____ that occurs when one person (the mentee) learns a behavior by watching another person (the mentor) perform the behavior


Vicarious learning
Self-control
Self-efficacy

vicarious learning

32

self-understanding and skills that one can do something


Vicarious learning
Self-control
Self-efficacy

self-efficacy

33

having maturity to know wether to engage in something


Vicarious learning
Self-control
Self-efficacy

self-control

34

Social cognitive theory acknowledges that people can learn on their own by using ?

Vicarious learning
Self-control
Self-efficacy

Self-control

35

A _______ behavior is a behavior that a person would not ordinarily want to perform. This condition distinguishes individuals exhibiting self-control from those engaging in activities they enjoy.

high probability behavior
low probability behavior
self-reinforcers

low probability behavior

36

______ are any consequences or rewards that individuals give to themselves. Such potentials include buying oneself a present, eating a favorite food, and so on.

high probability behavior
low probability behavior
self-reinforcers

Self-reinforcers

37

a reward can indiscriminately be applied rather than directly applying to a specific goal. t or f?

false,The reward cannot be indiscriminately applied but rather applies to a specific goal.

38

Once the goal is achieved, the reward must be applied. If not, future self-reinforcement will not be successful. t or f?

true

39

Employees who manager their own behavior through _______ are said to be self-managing.

Vicarious learning
Self-control
Self-efficacy

self control

40

______ is a person’s belief about his or her ability to perform a particular behavior successfully

Vicarious learning
Self-control
Self-efficacy

Self-efficacy

41

_____ influences the activities and goals that individuals choose for themselves. Employees with a low level of this may never try to learn how to perform challenging tasks because they think they will fail at them.

Vicarious learning
Self-control
Self-efficacy

Self-efficacy

42

_____ affects learning by influencing the effort that individuals exert on the job. Employees with a high level of this generally work hard to learn how to perform new behaviors because they are confident that their efforts will be successful.

Vicarious learning
Self-control
Self-efficacy

Self-efficacy

43

Employees with high/low self-efficacy are likely to persist in their efforts even in the face of problems.

high

44

Employees with high/low self-efficacy are likely to give us as soon as an obstacle appears.

low

45

____ affects the persistence with which a person tries to master new and difficult tasks.

Vicarious learning
Self-control
Self-efficacy

Self-efficacy

46

____ is the generation of novel and useful ideas. By novel, we mean that ideas represent a new way of thinking. Useful means that the ideas have the potential to contribute to the performance and well-being of individuals, groups, and organizations.

vicarious learning
experiential learning
creativity
innovation

Creativity

47

When people are creative, they are engaged in ?

vicarious learning
continuous learning
experiential learning

continuous learning

48

_____ is the successful implementation of creative ideas.

vicarious learning
experiential learning
creativity
innovation

Innovation

49

_____ is the process through which managers instill a desire to find new ways to improve organizational effectiveness.

vicarious learning
experiential learning
organization learning

Organization learning

50

______ occurs by the direct involvement of the learner in the subject matter being learned

vicarious learning
experiential learning
organization learning

experiential learning

51

_____ is the ability to capitalize on the knowledge possessed by organizational members which is not necessarily written down anywhere or codified in formal documents.

Knowledge management
Learning organizations

Knowledge management

52

_______ make sure their members actually have the knowledge and skills to continuously learn

Knowledge management
Learning organizations


Learning organizations

53

______ take steps to make sure that new ideas acted upon and knowledge is shared throughout the organization.

Knowledge management
Learning organizations

Learning organizations