Chapter 5: Perceptual Development Throughout the Life Span Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Perceptual Development Throughout the Life Span Deck (85):
1

______ is the process of registering stimulation and transmitting that information to cortical brain centers.

sensation

2

_____ is the process of assigning meaning to the sensation.

perception

3

The five sensory perceptual systems, although not fully developed, are all ______ at birth.

functional

4

Perception researchers have discovered that neonates have preferences for what they look at, taste, or _____.

hear

5

These ____ and perceptual abilities have been studied using very creative experimental procedures since a newborn cannot simply tell us what they see.

neonate preferences

6

Many of the neonate preference experiments take advantage of the fact that newborns show a simple form of learning called _____.

habituation

7

_____ is decreasing attention to a familiar stimulus. When newborns, are shown a new picture they look at it and and scan it. However, over time they look away. _____ lets the infant tell us that a stimulus is familiar or old.

habituation
habituation

8

Young infants can also be trained using Skinner's operant conditioning techniques. An infant can learn to respond a certain way to receive a _______.

reinforcement

9

A researcher can study an infant's ability to discriminate ______.

different sounds

10

As the newborn receives sensory stimulation, his or her perceptual abilities improve and the neural circuits in the brain centers that control each sensory perceptual function are ______.

strengthened

11

Sensory ____ research with animals indicates that there are sensitive periods for receiving sensory stimulation.. Some chimpanzees raised in the dark have permanently impaired vision due to the degeneration of the optic nerve --the nerve that transmits visual information to the cortical ______.

deprivation
vision center

12

If the sensory deprivation lasts no longer than ____ , the damage is reversible.

seven months

13

Human infants born blind due to _____ sometimes do not fully recover normal visual acuity.

cataracts- clouding on the lens of the eyes)

14

It is important to note that while the perceptual development in each modality will be discussed separately, perception is really ______, that is, the result of coordination and communication among the sensory perceptual systems.

intermodal

15

When we are looking at a scene, we also experience sounds and _____. In turn, the sensory perceptual experiences we have are associated in _____.

smells
memory

16

Meltzer and Borton reported evidence of intermodal perception in ____.

1 month old infants

17

_____ is accomplished after light waves enter the opening of the eye (the pupil) and are reflected by the lens onto the retina in the back of the eye.

vision

18

Visual receptor cells in the retina transmit signals to the vision center in the _____ lobe of the cortex.

occipital

19

Sensitivity to a perceptual stimulus is measured by the ____.

absolute threshold

20

The _____ is the minimal intensity of a stimulus an observer can detect

absolute threshold

21

The newborn's absolute threhold for vision and hearing is ___ than a normal adult's, but rapidly decreases. Young infants do not _____ very soft whispers that adults with normal hearing can.

higher
hear

22

At birth, neonates can see although their _____ is poor.

visual acuity

23

_____ is the ability to see fine gratings or details in a visual stimulus.

visual acuity

24

Perfect acuity is quantified as _____.

20/20

25

Newborn visual acuity ranges from about _____ to _____. This means a newborn can see something as clearly at 20 feet as a person with normal vision could see clearly at 600 to 800 feet.

20/400 to 20/800

26

The poor acuity in newborns is because the muscles that control the lens, the part of the eye that has to reflect light onto the retina are ____.

weak

27

Visual acuity improves rapidly over the first ____ of life.

4 months

28

Newborns are also capable of ____ a moving object, although their ____ movements are not very smooth and coordinated. They track by moving their entire head rather than just their eyes.

tracking
tracking

29

By the time infants can crawl, they indicate that they have _____ by refusing to crawl across the deep side of a visual cliff.

depth perception

30

Depth perception involves the interpretation of visual cues in order to determine how ____ the objects are.

far away

31

There is currently a debate as to whether depth perception is an _____ ability or a learned response as a result of experience.

inborn ability

32

Gibson and Walk developed an apparatus they called the _____ that is used to measure depth perception in infants and toddlers.

visual cliff

33

The visual cliff consists of an elevated glass platform divided into two sections. One section has a surface that is textured with a checkerboard pattern of tile, while the other has a ____ surface with a checkerboard pattern several feet below it so it looks like the floor drops off.

clear

34

The age of children who do not cross the visual cliff?

6 months and up Not sure

35

_____ or stability, of the shape, size, brightness, and color of objects in our visual fields. We are able to recognize the same objects at a variety of angles, at various _____, and even under different colored lighting because of ____.

perceptual constancy
perceptual constancies

36

____ constancy is when objects we are familiar with seem to appear the same size despite changes in the distance between us and the objects.

size

37

_____ constancy is when objects appear to be the same shape despite changes in their orientation toward the viewer.

shape

38

______ or ________ constancy is when objects appear to stay the same brightness despite changes tin the amount of light falling on them

brightness or lightness

39

____ constancy is when the hue of an object appears to stay the same despite changes in background lighting.

color

40

Newborns have been shown to have _____ constancy.

size

41

Studies of color perception using the habituation paradigm report that very young infants see color and have a mature ability to perceive color by ____ months of age.

two to three

42

Newborns and infants have visual preferences. They prefer to look at faces and other visual stimuli that have contour, contrast, ______ and movement. Some two day old infants are even capable of discriminating their mother's face from a ______ face.

complexity
stranger's

43

______ old infants will show surprise when shown a face with jumbled parts.

six and seven months

44

Young infants show ________. They will scan the borders and edges of objects in a visual stimulus while older infants will scan the _____.

selective looking
edges

45

This difference may be due to the fact that young infants are still learning to ______ objects in a scene which older infants can accomplish very quickly. The older infant has more time to scan inside the contours of an object for details.

pick out

46

Infants can hear prior to ____. There are many sounds in the womb including the sound of their mother's voice.

birth

47

Shortly after birth, newborn infants are capable of discriminating between sounds of different duration, loudness, and ____.

pitch

48

Newborns also appear to prefer the sound of a human voice to other sounds and prefer to hear complex sounds over _____.

pure tones

49

Young infants will listen longer to the sound of a person speaking than _____.

non speech sounds

50

At birth, infants will suck more on a nipple in order to hear their mother's voice compared to a ______ voice, and to hear their native language as compared to a foreign language.

stranger's

51

By ___ months of age, infants can discriminate between any two basic sounds, called phonemes, used in all the world's language.

6 months

52

By six months they can make discriminations between phonemes that older children and adults can _____.

no longer make

53

Psycholinguists and psychologists who study language argue that humans are _____ prepared to acquire a language.

innately

54

The sense of smell is _____ in a newborn.

well developed

55

The fetus is exposed to many odors as well as sounds in the _____.

womb

56

By ____ of age, infants can smell the difference between their mother and a stranger.

6 weeks

57

Infant's ability to discriminate tastes has been studied by observing changes in infant's facial expressions after different ___ are placed on the tongue.

flavored liquids

58

Infants respond differently to the four basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and _____), and they show a clear preference for sweet flavored liquids.

bitter

59

There is evidence that ___ has a soothing affect on newborns, particularly if the infant is experiencing pain.

sugar water

60

Infants are very response to _____.

touch

61

_____ is one of the best developed senses at birth and the earliest sensory perceptual systems to develop prenatally.

touch

62

Some research has shown that female infants may be more ____ to touch than males.

sensitive

63

____ infants, that is wrapping them tightly in cloth, has a soothing affect on infants perhaps because of the stimulating affect is has on the sense of touch.

swaddling

64

Gentle ____ has also been found to improve the development of premature infants.

massaging

65

At birth, infants are also highly sensitive to ____ and are sensitive to warm and cold temperatures.

pain

66

Most perceptual development in childhood and adolescence is really a matter of the development of _____.

attention

67

As children age they acquire more control of ____.

perception

68

_____ is the process of focusing on particular aspects of the sensory world.

attention

69

Between _____ and ____ years of age, visual search of a stimulus becomes more controlled and systematic.

4 and 10 years old

70

______ increase from 18 minutes in two to three year olds to more than an hour in six year olds.

attention spans

71

Learning to read requires these _______ and is probably the most significant perceptual challenge for children.

attentional capacities

72

Absolute thresholds for sensory stimuli rise with ____ in adulthood.

age

73

Adults gradually lose some sensitivity for sights, sounds, flavors, and _____.

odors

74

There is a slowing of the processing of sensory _____. For example, older adults may have trouble understanding rapid speech.

stimulation

75

There are changes that occur to the eye associated with ______.

aging

76

The lens of the eye gradually loses _____ and therefore cannot change its shape to reflect light as well as it did at an earlier age.

flexibility

77

The lens of the ye also can develop deposits called ______, which can be surgically removed but will lead to blindness if left uncorrected.

cataracts

78

____ appears more frequently in people over the age of 50 years old. It is a build up of pressure from excess fluid inside the eyeball.

glaucoma

79

If left untreated, ____ causes blindness, but it can be detected early during routing eye examinations.

glaucoma

80

All the vision changes that come with aging cause adults to see more _____, have less sensitivity under dim lighting conditions, and have difficulty with near vision.

glare

81

Aging adults that have difficulty with near vision and is called _______. It is present in most people after the mid to later 40s.

presbyopia

82

_____ is corrected with lenses that help focus images from near objects onto the retina.

presbyopia

83

Distance vision also shows a steady decline in old age after peaking in the ____ and staying steady in middle age.

20s

84

Older adults perform more poorly on test of selection attention and visual search compared with ____.

younger adults

85

Changes in hearing with age are caused by changes in the ____.

inner ear