Flashcards in Chapter 5: Perceptual Development Throughout the Life Span Deck (85):
______ is the process of registering stimulation and transmitting that information to cortical brain centers.
_____ is the process of assigning meaning to the sensation.
The five sensory perceptual systems, although not fully developed, are all ______ at birth.
Perception researchers have discovered that neonates have preferences for what they look at, taste, or _____.
These ____ and perceptual abilities have been studied using very creative experimental procedures since a newborn cannot simply tell us what they see.
Many of the neonate preference experiments take advantage of the fact that newborns show a simple form of learning called _____.
_____ is decreasing attention to a familiar stimulus. When newborns, are shown a new picture they look at it and and scan it. However, over time they look away. _____ lets the infant tell us that a stimulus is familiar or old.
Young infants can also be trained using Skinner's operant conditioning techniques. An infant can learn to respond a certain way to receive a _______.
A researcher can study an infant's ability to discriminate ______.
As the newborn receives sensory stimulation, his or her perceptual abilities improve and the neural circuits in the brain centers that control each sensory perceptual function are ______.
Sensory ____ research with animals indicates that there are sensitive periods for receiving sensory stimulation.. Some chimpanzees raised in the dark have permanently impaired vision due to the degeneration of the optic nerve --the nerve that transmits visual information to the cortical ______.
If the sensory deprivation lasts no longer than ____ , the damage is reversible.
Human infants born blind due to _____ sometimes do not fully recover normal visual acuity.
cataracts- clouding on the lens of the eyes)
It is important to note that while the perceptual development in each modality will be discussed separately, perception is really ______, that is, the result of coordination and communication among the sensory perceptual systems.
When we are looking at a scene, we also experience sounds and _____. In turn, the sensory perceptual experiences we have are associated in _____.
Meltzer and Borton reported evidence of intermodal perception in ____.
1 month old infants
_____ is accomplished after light waves enter the opening of the eye (the pupil) and are reflected by the lens onto the retina in the back of the eye.
Visual receptor cells in the retina transmit signals to the vision center in the _____ lobe of the cortex.
Sensitivity to a perceptual stimulus is measured by the ____.
The _____ is the minimal intensity of a stimulus an observer can detect
The newborn's absolute threhold for vision and hearing is ___ than a normal adult's, but rapidly decreases. Young infants do not _____ very soft whispers that adults with normal hearing can.
At birth, neonates can see although their _____ is poor.
_____ is the ability to see fine gratings or details in a visual stimulus.
Perfect acuity is quantified as _____.
Newborn visual acuity ranges from about _____ to _____. This means a newborn can see something as clearly at 20 feet as a person with normal vision could see clearly at 600 to 800 feet.
20/400 to 20/800
The poor acuity in newborns is because the muscles that control the lens, the part of the eye that has to reflect light onto the retina are ____.
Visual acuity improves rapidly over the first ____ of life.
Newborns are also capable of ____ a moving object, although their ____ movements are not very smooth and coordinated. They track by moving their entire head rather than just their eyes.
By the time infants can crawl, they indicate that they have _____ by refusing to crawl across the deep side of a visual cliff.
Depth perception involves the interpretation of visual cues in order to determine how ____ the objects are.
There is currently a debate as to whether depth perception is an _____ ability or a learned response as a result of experience.
Gibson and Walk developed an apparatus they called the _____ that is used to measure depth perception in infants and toddlers.
The visual cliff consists of an elevated glass platform divided into two sections. One section has a surface that is textured with a checkerboard pattern of tile, while the other has a ____ surface with a checkerboard pattern several feet below it so it looks like the floor drops off.
The age of children who do not cross the visual cliff?
6 months and up Not sure
_____ or stability, of the shape, size, brightness, and color of objects in our visual fields. We are able to recognize the same objects at a variety of angles, at various _____, and even under different colored lighting because of ____.
____ constancy is when objects we are familiar with seem to appear the same size despite changes in the distance between us and the objects.
_____ constancy is when objects appear to be the same shape despite changes in their orientation toward the viewer.
______ or ________ constancy is when objects appear to stay the same brightness despite changes tin the amount of light falling on them
brightness or lightness
____ constancy is when the hue of an object appears to stay the same despite changes in background lighting.
Newborns have been shown to have _____ constancy.
Studies of color perception using the habituation paradigm report that very young infants see color and have a mature ability to perceive color by ____ months of age.
two to three
Newborns and infants have visual preferences. They prefer to look at faces and other visual stimuli that have contour, contrast, ______ and movement. Some two day old infants are even capable of discriminating their mother's face from a ______ face.
______ old infants will show surprise when shown a face with jumbled parts.
six and seven months
Young infants show ________. They will scan the borders and edges of objects in a visual stimulus while older infants will scan the _____.
This difference may be due to the fact that young infants are still learning to ______ objects in a scene which older infants can accomplish very quickly. The older infant has more time to scan inside the contours of an object for details.
Infants can hear prior to ____. There are many sounds in the womb including the sound of their mother's voice.
Shortly after birth, newborn infants are capable of discriminating between sounds of different duration, loudness, and ____.
Newborns also appear to prefer the sound of a human voice to other sounds and prefer to hear complex sounds over _____.
Young infants will listen longer to the sound of a person speaking than _____.
non speech sounds
At birth, infants will suck more on a nipple in order to hear their mother's voice compared to a ______ voice, and to hear their native language as compared to a foreign language.
By ___ months of age, infants can discriminate between any two basic sounds, called phonemes, used in all the world's language.
By six months they can make discriminations between phonemes that older children and adults can _____.
no longer make
Psycholinguists and psychologists who study language argue that humans are _____ prepared to acquire a language.
The sense of smell is _____ in a newborn.
The fetus is exposed to many odors as well as sounds in the _____.
By ____ of age, infants can smell the difference between their mother and a stranger.
Infant's ability to discriminate tastes has been studied by observing changes in infant's facial expressions after different ___ are placed on the tongue.
Infants respond differently to the four basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and _____), and they show a clear preference for sweet flavored liquids.
There is evidence that ___ has a soothing affect on newborns, particularly if the infant is experiencing pain.
Infants are very response to _____.
_____ is one of the best developed senses at birth and the earliest sensory perceptual systems to develop prenatally.
Some research has shown that female infants may be more ____ to touch than males.
____ infants, that is wrapping them tightly in cloth, has a soothing affect on infants perhaps because of the stimulating affect is has on the sense of touch.
Gentle ____ has also been found to improve the development of premature infants.
At birth, infants are also highly sensitive to ____ and are sensitive to warm and cold temperatures.
Most perceptual development in childhood and adolescence is really a matter of the development of _____.
As children age they acquire more control of ____.
_____ is the process of focusing on particular aspects of the sensory world.
Between _____ and ____ years of age, visual search of a stimulus becomes more controlled and systematic.
4 and 10 years old
______ increase from 18 minutes in two to three year olds to more than an hour in six year olds.
Learning to read requires these _______ and is probably the most significant perceptual challenge for children.
Absolute thresholds for sensory stimuli rise with ____ in adulthood.
Adults gradually lose some sensitivity for sights, sounds, flavors, and _____.
There is a slowing of the processing of sensory _____. For example, older adults may have trouble understanding rapid speech.
There are changes that occur to the eye associated with ______.
The lens of the eye gradually loses _____ and therefore cannot change its shape to reflect light as well as it did at an earlier age.
The lens of the ye also can develop deposits called ______, which can be surgically removed but will lead to blindness if left uncorrected.
____ appears more frequently in people over the age of 50 years old. It is a build up of pressure from excess fluid inside the eyeball.
If left untreated, ____ causes blindness, but it can be detected early during routing eye examinations.
All the vision changes that come with aging cause adults to see more _____, have less sensitivity under dim lighting conditions, and have difficulty with near vision.
Aging adults that have difficulty with near vision and is called _______. It is present in most people after the mid to later 40s.
_____ is corrected with lenses that help focus images from near objects onto the retina.
Distance vision also shows a steady decline in old age after peaking in the ____ and staying steady in middle age.
Older adults perform more poorly on test of selection attention and visual search compared with ____.