Chapter 5: Photosynthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Photosynthesis Deck (52):
1

What types of organisms do photosynthesis?

1. plants
2. algae in the Protista kingdom

2

What's the general elemental formula for photosynthesis?

6CO(2) + 12H(2)O -> C(6)H(12)O(6) + 6H(2)O + 6O(2)

3

What's the word formula for photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide + water makes glucose + water + oxygen.

4

What type of reaction is photosynthesis?

photosynthesis is a REDUCTION reaction.

5

Why's photosynthesis a reduction reaction?

because the hydrogen in WATER is giving the CARBON in carbon dioxide electrons.

6

where are the stages of photosynthesis?

stages of photosynthesis:
1. light dependent reactions
2. light independent reactions or the Calvin cycle

7

Where do the light dependent reactions occur?

the light dependent reactions occur in the THYLAKOIDS of the grana

8

Where do the light independent reactions or the Calvin cycle occur?

the light independent reactions occur in the STROMA

9

Something that appears a certain color ___ that color and ___ all of the other colors.

Something that appears a certain color REFLECTS that color and ABSORBS all of the other colors.

10

A green plant can't absorb what color light?

green. That's why it reflects the color green and looks green.

11

What're pigments?

substances that absorb light in the VISIBLE SPECTRUM.

12

How do pigments differ from one another?

they absorb light of different WAVELENGTHS

13

What's the only photosynthetic pigment that can DIRECTLY participate in the light-dependent reactions?

chlorophyll a

14

What're accessory pigments?

pigments that assist in photosynthesis by capturing and giving chlorophyll a photons of light.

15

What're some examples of accessory pigments?

1. chlorophyll b
2. carotenoids
3. phycobilins

16

What color is chlorophyll b?

chlorophyll b is GREEN
- it absorbs all colors of light except green

17

What color are carotenoids?

carotenoids are
1. yellow
2. orange
3. red

18

What color are phycobilins?

phycobilins are RED

19

Where are phycobilins found?

phycobilins are fond in red ALGAE.

20

Only light that's ____ can be used to power the making of sugar.

Only light that's ABSORBED can be used to power the making of sugar.

21

What do the light dependent reactions in photosynthesis do?

the light dependent reactions in photosynthesis
1. make energy (ATP)
2. and protons
for the light independent reactions

22

What do the light independent reactions in photosynthesis do?

What do the light independent reactions in photosynthesis make SUGAR

23

What's the sugar that the light independent reactions make called?

PGAL

24

What's inside the thylakoids of chloroplasts that participate in light dependent reactions?

there are PHOTOSYSTEMS

25

What do photosystems do?

photosystems absorb light

26

What're photosystems made up of?

photosystems are made up of:
1. chlorophyll a
2. and accessory pigments chlorophyll b and carotenoids

27

Describe the steps of the light dependent reactions.

steps of the light dependent reactions:
1. chlorophyll absorbs light
2. electrons in chlorophyll become energized
3. the electrons escape into the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (ETC)
4. The energy from the energized electrons pumps protons from the stroma into the thylakoids, creating a proton gradient.
5. the protons flowing back through ATP synthetase makes ATP.

28

Describe the flow of energy through the light dependent reactions.

flow of energy through the light dependent reactions:
1. light
2. chlorophyll
3. energized electrons
4. electron transport chain (ETC)
5. proton gradient
6. ATP synthetase
7. ATP

29

What replaces the energized electrons that escape from the chlorophyll into the electron transport chain?
- light dependent reaction

electrons from WATER replace those last by chlorophyll in the light dependent reactions.

30

Where do the protons that get pumped against their concentration gradient into the thylakoids come from?
- light dependent reaction

the protons come from WATER.

31

What happens to water in the light dependent reactions?

water breaks down in a process called PHOTOLYSIS

32

What's photolysis in the light dependent reactions?

photolysis is when light breaks down the water into protons, electrons, and oxygen.

33

What happens to the different parts of water in the light dependent reactions?

1. the protons get pumped against the concentration gradient into the thylakoids
2. the electrons replace the energized electrons that leave in chlorophyll
3. the oxygen is a waste product and is released into the air.

34

What carries the protons from water from the light dependent reactions to the light independent reactions?

NADP carries the protons from water from the light dependent reactions to the light independent reactions

35

What's PGAL?

PGAL is a THREE (3) carbon sugar

36

What're the steps of the light independent reactions?

carbon fixation
1. carbon dioxide (CO2) taken in from the stomata combines with protons and electrons from the light dependent reactions combine with help from Rubisco
2. it forms PGAL sugar.

37

What's carbon fixation?

carbon fixation is when carbon dioxide (CO2) is incorporated into a sugar molecule

38

Where does the ATP needed for the light independent reactions come from?

it comes from the light DEPENDENT reactions.

39

What's rubisco?

rubisco fixes carbon, or does the carbon fixation
- it helps bind carbon dioxide to make sugar.

40

What type of reaction is cellular respiration?

cellular respiration is an OXIDATION reaction.

41

What's the difference in proton and electron carriers for photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

1. cellular respiration uses the carrier NAD
2. photosynthesis uses the carrier NADP.

42

What goes in and out of the leaf stomata?

1. carbon dioxide (CO2) goes in
2. oxygen (O2) goes out.

43

What type of reaction is photosynthesis?

photosynthesis is a REDUCTION reaction.

44

How come photosynthesis is a REDUCTION reaction?

- carbon dioxide gains protons and electrons to turn into the sugar PGAL.

45

What's the structure of the palisade layer of leaves?

the palisade layer is made up of TIGHTLY packed cells containing CHLOROPLASTS

46

What's the structure of the spongy meosophyll layer of leaves?

the spongy mesophyll layers
1. ARE made up of LOOSELY packed cells containing CHLOROPLASTS
2. have AIR SPACES

47

What do air spaces in the spongy meosophyll layer of leaves do?

air spaces in the spongy meosophyll layer of leaves allow for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.

48

What's the structure of the epidermis layer of leaves?

the epidermis layer of leaves is CLEAR and does NOT contain chloroplasts.

49

What does the epidermis layer of leaves do?

the the epidermis layer of leaves
1. protects delicate cells underneath it
2. allow light to pass into the leaf

50

What does the cuticle layer of leaves do?

the cuticle layer of leaves is WATERPROOF and minimizes the amount of water the leaves lose.

51

In a leaf, where does the majority of photosynthesis occur?

the majority of photosynthesis occurs in the PALISADE layer

52

What do guard cells in leaves do?

guard cells control the opening and closing of the STOMATAS, therefore minimizing water loss during gas exchange