Chapter 5 Quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Quiz Deck (45):
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Antecedent Stimuli

events that precede behaviors

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Aversive stimuli

an unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape

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Behavioral Learning Theories

Explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior

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Classical Conditioning

the process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditional stimulus in order to evoke a conditional response

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Cognitive Behavior Modification

Procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one's own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction

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Cognitive Learning theories

Explanations of learning that focus on mental processes

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Conditioned Stimulus

a previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus

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Consequences

Pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors

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Cues

signals as to which behaviors will be reinforced or punished

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Discrimination

perception of and response to differences in stimuli

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Extinction

the weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn

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Extinction Burst

The increase in levels of a behavior in the early stages of extinction

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Extrinsic Reinforcers

Praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not do otherwise

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Fixed Interval Schedule

Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewaring following a constant amount of time

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Fixed-ratio Interval

Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarding following a fixed number of behaviors

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Generalization

Carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another

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Intrinsic reinforcers

behaviors that a person enjoys enganging in for his or her own sake, without any other reward

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Learning

a change in an individual that results from experience

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Maintenance

continuation (of behavior)

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Modeling

imitation of others behavior

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Negative reinforcer

Release from an unpleasant situation, given to strength behavior

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Neutral Stimuli

Stimuli that have no effect on a particular situation

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Observational Learning

Learning by observation and imitation of others

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Operant Conditioning

The use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrences of behavior

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Positive Reinforcer

Pleasurable consequences given to strengthening behavior

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Premack Principle

rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities

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Presentation Punishment

an aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again

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Primary Reinforcer

Food, water, or other consequences that satisfies a basic need

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Punishment

unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior

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reinforcer

a pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior

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Removal Punishent

Withdrawl of a pleasant consequence that may be reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will recur

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Response Cost

Procedure of changing misbehaving students against their free time or other privilege

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Schedule of Reinforcement

The frequency and predictability of reinforcement

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Secondary Reinforcer

a consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer

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Self-Regulation

The ability to think and solve problems without the help of others

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Shaping

The teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps toward the desired goal

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Skinner box

an apparatus developed by BF Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments of operant conditioning

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Social Learning Theories

Learning Theories that emphasizes not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action

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Stimuli

environmental conditions that active the senses; the singular is stimulus

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Time Out

Procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced

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Unconditioned Response

a behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus

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Unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response

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Variable Interval Schedule

Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarding an unpredictable amount of time

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Variable Ratio Schedule

Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable number of behaviors

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Vicarious Learning

Learning based on observation of the consequences of others behavior