Chapter 5: Relationships And Families Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Relationships And Families Deck (55):

What’s human sexuality

Refers to how people express themselves as sexual beings


What’s Heterosexual relationships

Between a man and a woman


Homosexual relationship

Between members of the same sex


General attitudes towards sexual relationships

Christian church teaches that sex expresses a deep, loving, life-long union that first requires the commitment of marriage

Not all Christians agree with this but all are against unfaithfulness

The bible teaches that heterosexual relationships are part of God’s plan for humans

Genesis 1:28 and 2:24 say tht a man and woman should be united together and ‘increase in number’


General attitudes towards sexual relationships

Buddhism and other views

Buddhism does not favour one form of sexuality over another, or teach that sex before marriage is wrong

For Buddhists the most important principle is to not harm others through sexual activity

“There is a middle way wherein sexuality is fully acknowledged and regarded compassionately without the need to indulge in actions which lead to suffering”


Views on homosexual relationships

Some Christians oppose homosexual relationships because they believe this goes against gods plan

The Catholic Church teaches that homosexual sex is a sinful activity

“Do not have sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman ; that is detestable”

The CoE welcomes homosexuals living in committed relationships but does not allow same sex marriage in church. Some other churches do

Some Christians think loving faithful homosexual relationships are just as holy as heterosexual ones


Buddhism and other views on homosexual relationships

Do not oppose homosexual relationships or marriage

Many believe homosexual relationships are not morally different from heterosexual relationships

It is important there is consent and respect regardless of the gender of the people involved

Many people in Britain today believ homosexuals should have the same rights as heterosexuals

This is reflected in the fact that same sex marriage is now legal in the uk (although same-sex couples are not allowed to get married in many Churches)


Christian views about sexual relationships before marriage

Many believe sex expresses a deep, lifelong union that requires the commitment of marriage. It should not be a casual, temporary pleasure

Anglican and Catholic Churches teach that sex before marriage is wrong

Some liberal Christians think sex before marriage can be a valid expression of love, particularly if the couple are intending to get married or have a life long commitment

Christians believe it is wrong to use people for sex, to spread sexually transmitted infections or to risk pregnancy outside of marriage

“Free from sexual immorality”


Buddhist views on sexual relationships before of marriage

Buddhism teaches that sex before marriage is acceptable and no less moral than sex after marriage

What is wrong is to cause harm to others through sex

Some wait until marriage to have sex but this is likely to be for personal rather than religious reasons and influenced by local cultural practises


Christian views on sexual relationships outside marriage

Against adultery
Breaking marriage vows which they make before god and threatens the stable relationship needed for their children’s security

Jesus once forgave a woman caught committing adulterated but ordered her to leave her life of sin

Adultery is forbidden in one of the Ten Commandments

“You shall not commit adultery”


Buddhist views on sexual relationships outside marriage

Most Buddhists would say that adultery is unskillful because it involves deceit and it is also likely to cause harm


What’s contraception

Refers to the methods used to prevent a pregnancy taking place. Some prevent contraception from taking place (eg pill or condom) while some prevent the fertilised egg from developing (eg the ‘morning after’ pill)


What’s family planning

Controlling how many children couples have and when


There is a widespread acceptance of contraception in Britain among non-religious people

Religious believers are less likely to accept artificial contraception, particularly if it prevents the fertilised egg from developing


Catholics belief about contraception

Artificial contraception goes agains natural law and the purpose of marriage

Sex should always be open to creating new life

Family planning should only involve natural methods of contraception


Catholics faveouriete method of contraception

The rhythm method

(Avoiding sex at fertile times of the month)


Anglican and non-conformists beliefs on contraception

Allowed for couples to develop their relationship before having children to space out pregnancies, to avoid harming the mothers health or to limit the number of children in a family so they can all be cared for

In 1930 the CoE approves artificial contraception used ‘in the light on Christian principles’

Christians who believ life begins at the moment of conception are against methods that prevent the fertilised egg from developing as this is seen as causing abortion and a form of murder


Anglicans and non-conformists favourite methods of contraception

A preference among some for contraception that prevents conception from taking place


Buddhists beliefs on contraception

Most Buddhists believe it is acceptable to use contraception that prevents conception

Some believe contraception that prevents a fertilised agg from developing is a form of killing and breaks the first moral precept so is not acceptable

However they might make exceptions eg if the birth threatens the mothers life or if she would struggle to care for the child

Having children is not considered an obligation it may even be considered better not to have children if one wants to lead a spiritual life


Buddhists favourite method of contraception

A presence among some for contraception that prevents conception from taking place


Non-religious people in British society attitudes towards contraception

Widespread acceptance of artificial contraception to help family planning

Many people think it is responsible to use contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, control population growth. And prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases


Non religious faveoured methods of contraception

Any type


What’s marriage

Legal union between a man and a woman as partners in a relationship


What’s cohabitation

Refers to a couple living together and having a sexual relationship not married

Common in Britain but not all Christians agree with it


What do non-religious people think marriage is

A legal union between two people in a relationship

A serious, lifelong commitment made in public to another person

Provides legal and financial benefits


Buddhists views on what marriage is

A social contract rather than a religious duty or sacred act

A civil ceremony

Can be same sex

Helps wellbeing of a community and society as a whole by cementing strong, trusting relationships that provide support, protection and happiness


Christians views on what marriage is

A gift from god and part of the natural law

A covenant (agreement) before god in which the couple promised to live faithfully together till death

A unique relationship between a man and woman that allows for the possibility of creating new life
“God blesses them and said to them “be fruitful and increase in number”

A spiritual bond of trust that reflects the love of Christ for the church

The proper place to enjoy sex, raise children in a religious faith, and provide a secure, stable environment for family life

“The Church sees marriage between a man and a woman as central to the stability and health of human society”



In Britain many couples cohabit before getting married or ever getting married

They may want to see if relationship will work before getting married or may not believe that it is necessary to get married

Catholic and orthodox churches oppose cohabitation as they believe sex should only take place within marriage

Many Anglican and Protestant Christians accept that although marriage is best people may cohabit a faithful loving and committed way without being married

Buddhist teachings do not go against sex before marriage or cohabitation


In the uk when is divorce allowed

After one year if s marriage cannot be saved


Reasons for divorce

Illness or disability
Work and money pressures
Domestic violence
Inability to have children
People changing and growing apart
Lack of communication


Christian views on divorce and remarriage

Some believe sanctity of marriage vows means they must be kept no matter what

Catholic Church teaches marriage is a sacrament that is permanent. Catholics can separate but not remarry while their partner is still alive

Other Christians believe that sometimes divorce is the lesser of two evils and should be allowed for compassionate reasons

Protestant churches (eg Methodists) accept civil divorce and allow remarriage in church under certain conditions, divorced anglicans can remarry in church with the bishops permission

These Christians think the church should reflects gods forgiveness and allow couples a second chance for happiness

Jesus taught that anyone who divorced and remarried was committing adultery


Buddhist views on divorce and remarriage

In Buddhism there is no teaching that states that divorce or remarriage is wrong

But societies where Buddhism is prevalent tend to disapprove of divorce which is seen as a last resort this means couples put more effort into mending their relationship when it goes wrong

However clinging to an attachhement that produced suffering goes against the buddhas teachings

Most Buddhists would therefore consider fdivorxr when it is not possible to reconcile the relationship and it is the only way to reduce the couples suffering

Many Buddhists see remarriage as an opportunity to commit to a new health relationship that increased people’s happiness


Mark 10:11-12 suggests divorce is always wrong but Matthew 5:32 suggests that

It’s acceptable in cases of unfaithfulness


Christian and Buddhist responses to couples have marriage problems

Christian churches may offer counselling, prayer and sacraments to support the couple

They may refer couple to outside agencies such as relate and ACCORD

Christians may be encouraged to bring forgiveness and reconciliation into their marriage

Buddhists may be encouraged to practise five moral precepts more fully


What’s a nuclear family

Mother father children

Most common family type in the West

For Christians it fulfils gods plan for a man and woman to be united and increase in number


What’s an extended family

Included frandparetns and other relatives aswell

In biblical times, many people lived in extended families for extra support

There still common in Buddhist countries such as Thailand and Sri Lanka


Families with Sam-sex parents

Homosexual couple raise children

Some Christians dissaprovw as they believe children should have both genders as a role model

Other think it’s more important to be in a secure and loving family regardless


What’s a polygamous family

When a man has two wives

Illegal in uk

For Christians it goes agains gods plan and can lead to sexual immorality

Not the favoured family modelxin Buddhism as it is considered likely to cause suffering for those involved


4 types of family

Same sex parents


The role of parents

Encourage positive morals and values

Educated children about their faith

Love and care for their children

Techs their child from right from wrong


Role of children

Support and care for their parents in their old age

Preserve traditions of the family in Buddhism

Love and respect their parents

‘Children, obey your parents in everything, this pleases the lord’


What’s procreation

Bringing babies into the world


Three purposes of families


Stability and the protection of children

Education children in a faith



Mainly takes place within the family

More emphasis in christiansinty on procreation as a purpose of the family

In Buddhism there are no religious pressures or expectations to have children


Stability and the protection of children

Families provide secure, stable environments for children to grow up in

Families offer mutual support and protection for their members


Educating children in a faith

Christians parents expected to be good role models and teach their children Christian values

They should teach children about the faith and nurture their spiritual lives, which they may do through daily prayer

Some parents send their children to faith schools or groups run by their church for religious education

Most Buddhists parents teach their children Buddhists beliefs and practices and how to show devotion and respect towards the Buddha

They will teach theror children good morals and values

They will usually involve their children in religious ceremonies and gatherings

Some may send their children to monasteries to be educated


Define gender equality

Men and women should be given same rights and opportunities as each other


Define gender prejudice

Holding biased opinions about people based on their gender


Define sexual stereotyping

Having a fixed idea or image of how men and women will behave


Define gender discrimination

Acting against someone on the basis of their gender


Examples of gender prejudice and discrimination

In Catholicism, women are not allowed to be ordained as priests

In Theravada Buddhism, nuns are generally seen as subservient to monks

In uk, some women are paid less than men for the same jobs

In uk, women make up roughly half the workforce but men hold a higher proportion of senior positions


The sex discrimination act was in

1975 and made gender discrimination illegal in the uk. Despite this it still occurs today


Uk views of gender discrimination and prejudice

In the past, men had more power and rights than women

Traditional roles involved men working to support the family and women caring for the home and raising children

Today most people in the uk are against gender prejudice and discrimination but it still occurs

The roles of men and women have become more flexible and childcare is often shared more equally between parents

Who takes on what role in a family bay be decided by financial considerations on the different skills of the parents


Chirsitian views of gender discrimination and prejudice

All people are created equal in the image of god

Common to love ones neighbour means discriminatuon is wrong

Jesus treated woman with respect and welcomed them as disciples

Some traditional Christians think husbands should rule over their wives based on a literal interpretation of genesis 3:16
Most Christians today see marriage as an equal partnership


Buddhist views on gender discrimination and prejudice

Buddhas time women were seen as inferior to men

The Buddha ordained women as nuns although was at first reluctant to do so

The aparimitayur sutra suggests women must be reborn as men before they can achieve enlightenment. Some Buddhists still believe this today

In contrast, the lotus sutra teaches that men and women are equal in their ability to attain enlightenment

Many Buddhists today believe men and women should have equal status and that gender discrimination expresses a lack of loving kindness
Eg the triratna Buddhist order has the same ordination process for men and women