Chapter 5: Resistance Training Adaptations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Resistance Training Adaptations Deck (47):
1

adaptations which are responses to exercise, and are changes that occur in the body during and shortly after an exercise bout

acute adapataions

2

changes in the body that occur after repeated training bouts and persist long after a training session ends

chronic adaptations

3

this is key to inducing increases in muscle size and strength

overload

4

these two adaptations occur early in resistance training

quality of muscle protein, and neurological adaptations

5

hypertrophy in muscle is not usually seen until this long after training begins

8-12 weeks

6

This dictates a clients ultimate magnitude of muscle size increases

genetic factors

7

these drive chronic adaptations

acute adaptations

8

Small muscles depend more heavily on this to control force output, while large muscle ten to depend more on this

rate coding
recruitment

9

The increase seen in EMGs during a set of resistance training exercise reflects this

changes in motor unit recruitment and firing rates

10

T/F: motor units that innervate ST MU innervate fewer fibers than MU that innervate FT

T

11

motor unit recruitement is based on this

size principle

12

These have the largest diameter motor neurons, therefore require the greatest level of stimulation to be activated

FT

13

T/F: the body only uses ST during slow movements, and FT during fast movements

F

14

These metabolites are known potential causes of fatigue

hydrogen ions
inorganic phosphate
ammonia

15

this percent of ATP production during bodybuilding type resistance training comes from glycolysis

80%

16

T/F: Carbohydrates are not important for resistance training

F, carbohydrate need to be included in an adequate amount in the diet to replenish lost glycogen stores utilized during resistance training

17

Growth hormone and insulin are this type of hormone

peptide

18

this hormone increases fat and carbohydrate breakdown by the cell so that more ATP will be available for muscle contration.

Epinephrine

19

This hormone effects the CNS which may facilitate MU activation

epinephrine

20

T/F: testosterone and GH concentrations are elevated with resistance training in males

T

21

T/F: bouts that have higher volume and shorter rest periods have a weaker endocrine response than do bouts with lower volume and longer rest periods

F, Stronger

22

T/F: large muscle mass exercises have a more powerful stimulus than do small muscle mass exercises on the endocrine system

T

23

Chronic neural adaptations include

decreased cocontraction is likely, as well as enhanced recruitment, and rate coding as shown by EMG

24

the simultaneous activation of an agonist and an antagonist during a motor task

co contraction

25

These types of MF show a greater degree of hypertrophy

Type II

26

Hypertrophy is atributed to these two things

size, and number of myofibrils within the MF

27

With respect to MF types, resistance training induces a fiber subtype shift from this type to this type of MF

type IIx to type IIa

28

T/F: Protein synthesis, and degradation increase after resistance training

T, this is seen in that less protein mass is gained than would be expected if degradation did not occur

29

In addition to hypertrophy, and enhanced protein quality of muscle tissue following chronic resistance training, this is also seen in the MF

Increase in the content of cytoskeletal and structural proteins in skeletal muscle

30

Resistance training has the following effects on tendon and ligaments

increases cross-sectional area, tendon stiffness

31

T/F: concentrations of phosphogens, and glycolytic enzymes increase with resistance training

F, while concentrations have not been show to increase, absolute levels of these enzymes do increase, leading to absolute muscle endurance likely increasing following resistance training

32

T/F: there is conflicting evidence to show a chronic increase in anabolic hormones following resistance training

T

33

T/F: resistance training has no beneficial effects on cardiovascular endurance

F, while not directly increasing VO2, RT does improve running efficiency, and increasing muscular strength and power, while not causing any negative effects on Vo2max

34

T/F: RT does induce increases in capillarizaion

T

35

These two cardio-respiratory variables decrease at the cellular level

myoglobin, and mitochondrial concentration

36

specificity in resistance training includes these variables

mode of exercise matching the mode of the event
Velocity specific

37

T/F: Force production capability of a given amount of muscle is affected by a persons sex

F, not

38

Sacropenia appears after this age

30

39

These aspects of muscle may also decline with age

mass, and quality

40

As individuals age they have a diminished ability to do these two things that pertain to resistance training

produce force
produce force rapidly

41

inappropriate levels of volume or intensity can lead to this

overtraining

42

To avoid overtraining these two things must be monitored

toleration and recovery from resistance training

43

Many overtraining syndromes are functions of this

rate of progression being to fast for the bodies physiological adaptations to cope with

44

two types of RT overtraining

overtraining of a muscle group
overtraining of the body

45

most effective cure for overtraining

Rest

46

the effects of detraining can be slowed down by this

the inclusion of a resistance training regime 1 to 2 times per week

47

T/F: symptoms of overtraining from resistance exercise are all negative

T