Chapter 5 - Sensation And Perception Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Chapter 5 - Sensation And Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Sensation And Perception Deck (73):
1

Sensation

The sense organs’ detection of external physical stimulus and the transmission of information about this stimulus to the brain

2

Perception

The processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals in the brain; these processes result in an internal neural representation of the physical stimulus

3

Sensory receptors

Sensory organs that detect physical stimulation from the external world and change that stimulation into information that can processed by the brain

4

Transduction

A process by which sensory receptors change physical stimuli into signals that are eventually sent to the brain

5

Absolute threshold

The smallest amount of physical stimulation required to detect a sensory input half of the time it is present

6

Difference threshold

The minimum difference in physical stimulation required to detect a difference between sensory inputs

7

Weber’s law

Stating that the just noticeable difference between two sensory inputs is based on proportion of the original sensory input rather than on a fixed amount of difference.

8

Signal detection theory

Detection of a faint stimuli requires a judgment - it is not an all-or-none process

9

Sensory adaptation

A decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation

10

Cornea

The eyes thick, transparent outer layer

11

Pupil

The small opening that looks like a dark circle at the center of the eye

12

Iris

A circular muscle, gives eyes their color and controls the pupils size to determine how much light enters the eye

13

Lens

The adjustable, transparent structure behind the pupil; this structure focuses light on the retina, resulting in a crisp, visual image

14

Retina

The thin inner surface of the back of the eyeball; this surface contains the sensory receptors

15

Rods

Sensory receptors in the retina that detect light waves and transduce them into signals that are processed in the brain is vision. Rods respond best to low levels of illumination, and therefore they do not support color vision or seeing fine detail

16

Cones

Sensory receptors in the retina that detect light waves and transduce them into signals that are processed in the brain as vision. Cones respond best to higher levels of illumination, and therefore they are responsible for seeing color and fine detail

17

Fovea

A small region near the center of the retina where cones are densely packed

18

Ganglion cells

The first true neurons in the visual system

19

Optic nerve

The optic nerve exits the eye at the back of the retina

20

Primary visual cortex

The region of the brain that provides basic information about what is seen

21

Amplitude

The height of the light wave from base to peak

22

Brightness

The difference between bright blue and dark blue of the same shade

23

Wavelength

The wavelength of the light wave is the distance from peak to Peak. This distance determines your perception of both hue and saturation

24

Hue

Refers to the distinctive characteristics that place a particular color in the spectrum

25

Saturation

The intensity of the color

26

Trichromatic theory

There are three types of cone receptor cells in the retina that are responsible for color perception. Each type responds optimally to different, but overlapping, ranges of wavelengths

27

Additive color mixing

The combining of wavelengths

28

Subtractive color mixing

The combining of pigments

29

Opponent-process theory

The proposal that ganglion cells in the retina receive excitatory input from one type of cone and inhibitory input from another type of cone, creating the perception that some colors are opposites

30

Grouping

The visual systems organization of features and regions to create the perception of a whole, unified object

31

Bottom-up processing

The perception of objects is due to analysis of environmental stimulus input by sensory receptors; this analysis than influences the more complex, conceptual processings of that information in the brain

32

Top-down processing

The perception of objects is due to the complex analysis of prior experiences and expectations within the brain; this analysis influences how sensory receptors process stimulus input from the environment

33

Binocular depth cues

Cues of depth perception that arise because people have two eyes

34

Monocular depth cues

Cues of depth perception that are available to each eye alone

35

Motion aftereffects

May occur when you gaze at a moving image for a long time and then look at a stationary scene. You experience a momentary impression that the new scene is moving in the opposite direction from the moving image

36

Stroboscopic motion

When a series of still images is presented fast enough, we perceive the illusion of motion pictures

37

Eardrum

A thin membrane that marks the beginning of the middle ear; sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate

38

Ossicles

Three tiny bones which amplify the vibrations in your ear even more

39

Cochlea

A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear that houses the sensory receptors

40

Hair cells

Sensory receptors located in the cochlea that detect sound waves and transduce them into signals that ultimately are processed in the brain as sound

41

Temporal coding

Perception of lower pitched sounds is a result of the rate at which hair cells are stimulated by sound waves of lower frequencies

42

Place coding

The perception of higher pitch sounds is a result of the location on the basilar membrane were hair cells are stimulated by soundwaves of varying higher frequencies

43

Taste buds

Structures, located in papillae on the tongue, that contain the sensory receptors called taste receptors

44

Papillae

Structures on the tongue that contain groupings of taste buds

45

Olfactory epithelium

A thin layer of tissue, deep within the nasal cavity, containing the olfactory receptors; these sensory receptors produce information that is processed in the brain as smell

46

Olfactory bulb

A brain structure above the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity; from this structure, the olfactory nerve carries information about smell to the brain

47

Warm receptors

Sensory receptors in the skin that detect the temperature of stimuli and transduce it into information processed in the brain as warmth

48

Cold receptors

Sensory receptors in the skin that detect the temperature of stimuli and transduce it into information processed in the brain as cold

49

Pressure receptors

Sensory receptors in the skin that detect tactile stimulation and transduce it into information processed in the brain has different types of pressure on the skin

50

Fast fibers

Sensory receptors in skin, muscles, organs, and membranes around both bones and joints; these myelinated fibers quickly convey intense sensory input to the brain, where it is perceived as sharp, immediate pain

51

Slow fibers

Sensory receptors in skin, muscles, organs, and membranes around both bones and joints; these unmyelinated fibers slowly convey intense sensory input to the brain, what is perceived as chronic, dull, steady pain

52

Kinesthetic sense

Tells us how our body and limbs are positioned in space

53

Vestibular sense

Allows us to maintain balance

54

Because of which of the following can you see different colors?

Lens, cones, retina, rods

Cones

55

During sensation and perception, sensory receptors on the skin transduce information and then send this information to...

The somatosensory cortex

56

Mary’s brain cannot directly process soundwaves to hear what her boyfriend is saying. Instead, her sensory receptors detect sound waves and change them into signals that her brain can interpret as meaning “I love you”, in a process called

Transduction

57

The sense that allows you to determine the location of your body and limbs in space is called

Kinesthetic

58

_______ has the most direct route to the brain because it is the only sense that bypasses the _______

Olfaction; thalamus

59

When Petra jumps in a cold lake, she feels as though she is freezing. After a few minutes, she no longer notices the cold and feels comfortable in the water. This change is best explained by

Sensory adaptation

60

Ayelet is trying to draw a picture of two people down the street from each other. No matter how carefully she tries to draw them both the same size, the person who is supposed to be further away always appears much taller than the nearer person. You could explain that the depth cue of _________ size means that she will need to draw a ________ Image of the person who is supposed to be further away

Relative; smaller

61

Anna is reading her psychology textbook. The light reflects off the words on the page and falls on the sensory receptors in her retina, which results in _______. Then her brain interprets the stimuli as particular words, which is called ________

Sensation; perception

62

There are several steps involved in the process of transforming a sound into a signal that can be understood by the brain. What are the steps in the correct order?

Sound wave–eardrum vibration–pressure wave in fluid

63

The auditory neurons extending from the ______ reach out with their axons to the primary auditory cortex in the _______

Thalamus; temporal lobe

64

The coiled, bony, fluid–filled tube in the inner ear that houses the sensory receptors is called the

Cochlea

65

According to _____ we perceive a car as a whole unit rather than perceiving it as a group of distinct entities (such as metal, tires, glass, doorhandles, hubcaps, and fenders)

Gestalt psychology

66

Why does a dog sniff virtually everything that it encounters?

Because the main way through a dog perceives the world is through olfaction

67

Being able to detect the origin of a sound is called

Localization

68

What would be the worst tip for someone who is experiencing pain after surgery?

“Focus on the pain and it’s sensations”

69

Daniel is standing on the outside platform at the train station. He looks down the tracks, hoping to see his train. As the tracks get further from him the two sides of the tracks will appear to ______, providing the depth cue of _______

Coverage; Linear perspective

70

Structures on the tongue that contain groupings of taste buds are called

Papillae

71

If a key is pressed on a piano, the frequency of the resulting sound will determine the ________, and the amplitude will determine the _______ of the perceived musical note.

Pitch; loudness

72

People see the figure ( ) as an oval rather than two separate curving lines. Which gestalt principle explains this outcome?

Closure

73

Binocular disparity is about

Different views from each eye