Chapter 5 - Sensation And Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Sensation And Perception Deck (53):
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Sensation

The sense organs’ detection of external physical stimulus and the transmission of information about this stimulus to the brain

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Perception

The processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals in the brain; these processes result in an internal neural representation of the physical stimulus

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Sensory receptors

Sensory organs that detect physical stimulation from the external world and change that stimulation into information that can processed by the brain

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Transduction

A process by which sensory receptors change physical stimuli into signals that are eventually sent to the brain

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Absolute threshold

The smallest amount of physical stimulation required to detect a sensory input half of the time it is present

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Difference threshold

The minimum difference in physical stimulation required to detect a difference between sensory inputs

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Weber’s law

Stating that the just noticeable difference between two sensory inputs is based on proportion of the original sensory input rather than on a fixed amount of difference.

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Signal detection theory

Detection of a faint stimuli requires a judgment - it is not an all-or-none process

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Sensory adaptation

A decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation

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Cornea

The eyes thick, transparent outer layer

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Pupil

The small opening that looks like a dark circle at the center of the eye

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Iris

A circular muscle, gives eyes their color and controls the pupils size to determine how much light enters the eye

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Lens

The adjustable, transparent structure behind the pupil; this structure focuses light on the retina, resulting in a crisp, visual image

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Retina

The thin inner surface of the back of the eyeball; this surface contains the sensory receptors

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Rods

Sensory receptors in the retina that detect light waves and transduce them into signals that are processed in the brain is vision. Rods respond best to low levels of illumination, and therefore they do not support color vision or seeing fine detail

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Cones

Sensory receptors in the retina that detect light waves and transduce them into signals that are processed in the brain as vision. Cones respond best to higher levels of illumination, and therefore they are responsible for seeing color and fine detail

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Fovea

A small region near the center of the retina where cones are densely packed

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Ganglion cells

The first true neurons in the visual system

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Optic nerve

The optic nerve exits the eye at the back of the retina

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Primary visual cortex

The region of the brain that provides basic information about what is seen

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Amplitude

The height of the light wave from base to peak

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Brightness

The difference between bright blue and dark blue of the same shade

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Wavelength

The wavelength of the light wave is the distance from peak to Peak. This distance determines your perception of both hue and saturation

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Hue

Refers to the distinctive characteristics that place a particular color in the spectrum

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Saturation

The intensity of the color

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Trichromatic theory

There are three types of cone receptor cells in the retina that are responsible for color perception. Each type responds optimally to different, but overlapping, ranges of wavelengths

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Additive color mixing

The combining of wavelengths

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Subtractive color mixing

The combining of pigments

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Opponent-process theory

The proposal that ganglion cells in the retina receive excitatory input from one type of cone and inhibitory input from another type of cone, creating the perception that some colors are opposites

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Grouping

The visual systems organization of features and regions to create the perception of a whole, unified object

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Bottom-up processing

The perception of objects is due to analysis of environmental stimulus input by sensory receptors; this analysis than influences the more complex, conceptual processings of that information in the brain

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Top-down processing

The perception of objects is due to the complex analysis of prior experiences and expectations within the brain; this analysis influences how sensory receptors process stimulus input from the environment

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Binocular depth cues

Cues of depth perception that arise because people have two eyes

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Monocular depth cues

Cues of depth perception that are available to each eye alone

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Motion aftereffects

May occur when you gaze at a moving image for a long time and then look at a stationary scene. You experience a momentary impression that the new scene is moving in the opposite direction from the moving image

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Stroboscopic motion

When a series of still images is presented fast enough, we perceive the illusion of motion pictures

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Eardrum

A thin membrane that marks the beginning of the middle ear; sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate

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Ossicles

Three tiny bones which amplify the vibrations in your ear even more

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Cochlea

A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear that houses the sensory receptors

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Hair cells

Sensory receptors located in the cochlea that detect sound waves and transduce them into signals that ultimately are processed in the brain as sound

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Temporal coding

Perception of lower pitched sounds is a result of the rate at which hair cells are stimulated by sound waves of lower frequencies

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Place coding

The perception of higher pitch sounds is a result of the location on the basilar membrane were hair cells are stimulated by soundwaves of varying higher frequencies

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Taste buds

Structures, located in papillae on the tongue, that contain the sensory receptors called taste receptors

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Papillae

Structures on the tongue that contain groupings of taste buds

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Olfactory epithelium

A thin layer of tissue, deep within the nasal cavity, containing the olfactory receptors; these sensory receptors produce information that is processed in the brain as smell

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Olfactory bulb

A brain structure above the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity; from this structure, the olfactory nerve carries information about smell to the brain

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Warm receptors

Sensory receptors in the skin that detect the temperature of stimuli and transduce it into information processed in the brain as warmth

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Cold receptors

Sensory receptors in the skin that detect the temperature of stimuli and transduce it into information processed in the brain as cold

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Pressure receptors

Sensory receptors in the skin that detect tactile stimulation and transduce it into information processed in the brain has different types of pressure on the skin

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Fast fibers

Sensory receptors in skin, muscles, organs, and membranes around both bones and joints; these myelinated fibers quickly convey intense sensory input to the brain, where it is perceived as sharp, immediate pain

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Slow fibers

Sensory receptors in skin, muscles, organs, and membranes around both bones and joints; these unmyelinated fibers slowly convey intense sensory input to the brain, what is perceived as chronic, dull, steady pain

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Kinesthetic sense

Tells us how our body and limbs are positioned in space

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Vestibular sense

Allows us to maintain balance