Chapter 5: Sex Hormones, Sexual Differentiation, and the Menstrual Cycle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Sex Hormones, Sexual Differentiation, and the Menstrual Cycle Deck (42):
1

the time from conception to birth

prenatal period

2

chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands into the bloodstream

hormones

3

a hormone secreted by the testes in males (and also present at lower levels in females)

testosterone

4

the group of male sex hormones, one of which is testosterone

androgens

5

the group of female sex hormones

estrogens

6

a sex hormone secreted by the ovaries

progesterone

7

a small endocrine gland located on the lower side of the brain below the hypothalamus; regulates levels of sex hormones

Pituitary gland

8

a small region of the brain that is important in regulating many body functions, including the functioning of the sex hormones

Hypothalamus

9

a hormone secreted by the pituitary; it stimulates follicle development in females and sperm production in males

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

10

a hormone secreted by the pituitary; it regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development in females and testosterone production in males

Lutenizing Hormone (LH)

11

a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that regulates the pituitary's secretion of gonad-stimulating hormones

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)

12

hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis; the negative feedback loop that regulates sex-hormone production

HPG axis

13

a hormone secreted by the testes and ovaries that regulates that regulates FSH levels

Inhibin

14

a pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands

Prolactin

15

a pituitary hormone that stimulates milk ejection from the nipples and contractions of the uterus during childbirth

Oxytocin

16

stands for sex-determining region, Y chromosome

SRY

17

ducts found in both male and female fetuses; in males they degenerate, and in females they develop into the fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the upper part of the vagina

Mullerian Ducts

18

ducts found in both male and female fetuses; in females they degenerate, and in males they develop into the epididymis, the vas deferens, and the ejaculatory duct

Wolffian Ducts

19

undescended testes; the condition in which the testes do not descend to the scrotum as they should during prenatal development

Cryptorchidism

20

chemicals in the environment that affect the endocrine system and the biological functioning and behavior of animals, including humans

endocrine disrupters

21

organs in the male and female that develop from the same embryonic tissue

Homologous organs

22

organs in the male and female that have similar functions

Analogous organs

23

a condition in which the individual has a mixture of male and female reproductive structures, so that it is not clear at birth whether the individual is a male or a female. ; formerly called a pseudohermaphrodite

Intersex

24

a newer term for intersex conditions

Disorders of sex development (DSD)

25

a condition in which a genetic female produces abnormal levels of androgens prenatally and therefore has male-appearing genitals at birth

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

26

a genetic condition in which the body is unresponsive to androgens so that a genetic male may be born with a female-appearing body

Androgen-insensitivity syndrome (AIS)

27

the time during which there is sudden enlargement and maturation of the gonads, other genitalia, and secondary sex characteristics, so that the individual becomes capable of reproduction

puberty

28

first menstruation

menarche

29

a hormone related to the onset of puberty

Leptin

30

endocrine glands located jujst above the kidneys; in females they are the major producers of androgens

Adrenal Glands

31

a time of increased secretion of adrenal androgens, usually just before age eight

Adrenarche

32

the first phase of the menstrual cycle, beginning just after menstruation, during which an egg matures in preparation for ovulation

Follicular phase

33

release of an egg from the ovaries; the second phase of the menstrual cycle

Ovulation

34

the third phase of the menstrual cycle, following ovulation

Luteal phase

35

the mass of cells of the follicle remaining after ovulation; it secretes progesterone

Corpus luteum

36

the fourth phase of the menstrual cycle, during which the endometrium of the uterus is sloughed off in the menstrual discharge

Menstruation

37

painful menstruation

dysmenorrea

38

chemicals secreted by the uterus that cause the uterine muscles to contractl they are a likely cause of painful menstruation

Prostaglandins

39

a condition in which the endometrium grows abnormally outside the uterus; the symptom is unusually painful periods with excessive bleeding

Endometriosis

40

the absense of menstruation

Amenorrhea

41

a combination of severe physical and psychological symptoms, such as depression and irritability, occurring just before menstruation

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

42

a tentative diagnostic category in the DWM, characterized by sumptoms such as sadness, anxiety, and irritability in the week before menstruation

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)