Chapter 5 - Sheet1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Sheet1 Deck (45):
1

Two important functions of the transport layer

Error recovery, flow control

2

What layer number is the transport layer

4

3

Advantage of UDP over TCP

Fewer services means less overhead

4

VoIP uses ___ as a transport layer protocol because ____

UDP because it does not need error recovery

5

Features of TCP

Multiplexing using ports, error recovery, flow control via windowing, connection establishment & termination, ordered data transfer and data segemtnation

6

Multiplexing using ports

Feature of TCP AND UDP: Allows receiving hosts to choose the correct application for which the data is destined, based on the port number.

7

Error Recovery

Feature of TCP. Process of numbering and acknowledging data with sequence and acknow2legement header fields

8

Flow control via windowing

process that uses window sizes to protect buffer space and routing devices from being overloaded with traffic.

9

Connection establishment and termination

Process used to initialize port numbers and sequence and acknolegement fields

10

Ordered data transfer and data segmentation

Continuous stream of bytes from an upper-layer process that is "segmented" for transmission and delivered to upper-layer processes at the receiving device, with the bytes in the same order

11

RFC number of TCP

RFC 793

12

TCP Segment

AKA Layer4PDU / L4PDU - Message created by TCP that begins with the TCP header, followed by application data

13

3 Things That make up a "socket"

IP address, transport protocol, port number. Example: 10.1.1.2, TCP, port 80

14

Location of well-known port numbers and their services

iana.org

15

FTP Data - Port & protocol

20, TCP

16

FTP control - Port & protocol

21, TCP

17

SSH - Port & protocol

22, TCP

18

Telnet - Port & protocol

23, TCP

19

SMTP - Port & protocol

25, TCP

20

DNS - Port & protocol

53, TCP or UDP

21

DHCP - Port & protocol

67, 68, UDP

22

TFTP - Port & protocol

69, UDP

23

HTTP (WWW) - Port & protocol

80, TCP

24

POP3 - Port & protocol

110, TCP

25

SNMP - Port & protocol

161, UDP

26

SSL - Port & protocol

443, TCP

27

Connection Establishment

The process by which a connection-oriented protocol creates a connection. With TCP, a
connection is established by a three-way transmission of TCP segments - syn, syn/ack, syn

28

Meaning behind "SYN"

Synchronize the sequence numbers

29

TCP connection termination looks like --

PC1 > PC2: ACK, FIN / PC2 > PC1 ACK / PC2 > PC1 ACK, FIN / PC1 > PC2 ACK

30

Connection-oriented protocol

A protocol that requires an exchange of mesages before data transfer begins, or that has a required preestablished correlation between endpoints

31

Connectionless protocol

Protocol that does not require an exchange of messages and that does not require a preestablished correlation between two endpoints

32

QoS

Quality of Service - Defines the quality of the data transfer between two applications and in the network as a whole.

33

Four competing characteristics of QoS

Bandwidth, Delay, Jitter, Loss

34

Bandwidth, in relation to QoS

The volume of bits per second needed for the application to work well; it can be
biased with more volume in one direction, or balanced.

35

Delay, in relation to QoS

The amount of time it takes one IP packet to flow from sender to receiver

36

Jitter, in relation to QoS

Variation / deviation in the delay

37

Loss, in relation to QoS

The percentage of packets discarded by the network before they reach the destination,
which when using TCP, requires a retransmission.

38

3 general categories of applications

batch, interactive, and real-time

39

Rank batch, interactive, and real-time applications in terms of QoS needs, lowest to highest

Batch, Interactive, and real-time

40

Web Server

Software, running on a computer, that stores web pages and sends those web pages to web clients
(web browsers) that request the web pages.

41

Web browser AKA

Web client, b/c they obtain a servie from a web server

42

URL

Uniform Resource Locator. A standard for how to refer to any piece of information retrievable
via a TCP/IP network, most notably used to identify web pages.

43

Where is the protocol used by a URL referrenced in the URL

before the two // (example: http in http://www.google.com

44

HTTP return code 200

"ok" - returns this after an HTTP GET response is received. Sends with requested file contents

45

HTTP return code 404

returns after an HTTP GET request is received but the requested file doesn't exist at the URL in the HTTP GET request