Chapter 5 System 6 Endocrine and 7 Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

Therapeutic Massage, Beck > Chapter 5 System 6 Endocrine and 7 Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 System 6 Endocrine and 7 Respiratory System Deck (66)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Glands

A

Are specialized organs that vary in size and function

Circulatory and nervous systems closely interact with the glands

Act as chemical factories, have the ability to remove certain constituents from the blood to produce specialized secretions

2
Q

Exocrine / duct glands

A

Possess tubes or ducts leading from the gland to a particular part of the body

I.e. Sweat glands, various skin and intestinal glands

3
Q

Endocrine / ductless

A

Depend on the blood and lymph to carry their secretions to various affected tissues

The endocrine glands operate cooperatively with one another and the nervous system to maintain a state of homeostasis within the organism

4
Q

Hormones

A

The chemical substances manufactured by the endocrine glands

Sometimes referred to as the body’s chemical messengers

Specialized so that they act on specific tissues (target organs) or influence certain processes in the body

Some hormones stimulate other endocrine or exocrine glands
Or restrain the activity of another gland

Some have a profound effect on physical or sexual development

Others regulate metabolism or body chemistry

5
Q

Endocrine system

A

Comprises a group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activity, and health of the entire body, depending on the quality and quantity of their secretions

The major function of the endocrine system is to assist the nervous system in regulating body processes

The endocrine glands operate cooperatively with one another and the nervous system to maintain a state of homeostasis within the organism

6
Q

What are the two main classifications of glands?

A

Exocrine / duct glands

Endocrine / ductless

7
Q

Important endocrine glands are the… (6)***

Other organs that have hormone producing tissue include… (5)

A
Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, 
sex glands (gonads), pancreas

Pineal gland, hypothalamus, kidneys, placenta, intestinal mucosa

8
Q

Hyperactive glands

A

Over secrete hormones owing to lack of regulation or glandular tumors

9
Q

Pituitary gland

A

Is a small gland, about the size of a cherry

often called the master gland, because the hormones it secretes stimulate or regulate other glands

Located in a depression on the sphenoid bone called the sella turcica

Is regulated by impulses and secretions from the hypothalamus.

It has an anterior and posterior lobe, each of which secretes different hormones

10
Q

Hypothalamus

A

Is part of the brain positioned at the inferior portion of the diencephalon

Plays a major role in controlling the secretions of the pituitary gland

Produces neural and chemical signals by releasing hormones or inhibitory hormones

11
Q

Hypoactive glands

A

Secrete insufficient amounts of their hormones

Can be diseased or underdeveloped; injury by trauma, surgery, or radiation; or not receiving proper stimulation and regulation

12
Q

Somatotropic or growth hormone

A

Stimulates the growth of bones, muscles, and organs

Deficiency of this hormone inhibits mental and physical growth

Anterior lobe

13
Q

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

A

Regulates the thyroid gland

Anterior lobe

14
Q

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

A

Stimulates the adrenal cortex

Anterior lobe

15
Q

Gonadotropic hormones

A

Regulate the development and function of the reproductive systems in humans

Anterior lobe

16
Q

Prolactin

A

Stimulates the production of milk in a woman’s breast

Anterior lobe

17
Q

The anterior lobe of the pituitary produces and secretes… (5)

A

Somatotropic or growth hormone

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)

Gonadotropic hormones

Prolactin

18
Q

The posterior lobe of the pituitary stores and secretes… (2)

A

Antidiuretic hormone

Oxytocin

19
Q

Antidiuretic hormones

A

Stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb more water, thereby reducing urine output

20
Q

Oxytocin

A

Causes the uterus to contract (during and after childbirth) and causes the letdown of breast milk

21
Q

Hyperpituitarism

A

Is most notably observed as the production of excessive amounts of growth hormones

Gigantism - before puberty
Acromegaly - after puberty

Hyper activity of the pituitary is usually caused by a tumor

22
Q

Gigantism***

A

If the hyper secretion occurs before puberty, the activity in the growth plates of the bones is accelerated and produces a giant

23
Q

Acromegaly

A

If hyperpituitarism occurs after puberty, when a person has reached full height, the effects are; the bones of the hands, feet, face, and spine enlarge in a condition called acromegaly

There is excessive growth in some soft tissues as the lips and nose enlarge and the lower jaw protrudes

24
Q

Hypopituitarism

A

can result from inadequate stimulation from the hypothalamus or from destruction of the pituitary gland

because the secretions of the pituitary gland stimulate other endocrine glands; it inhibits the actions of the target glands

can affect blood pressure, reproduction, growth, or failure to thrive

25
Q

Thyroid gland

A

situated on either side of the trachea

produces three hormones; thyroxin, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin

thyroid hormones regulate the cellular consumption of oxygen and therefore the production of heat and energy in body tissues

requires adequate iodine in the blood

proper diet ensures iodine, which helps to prevent goiter (enlarged thyroid)

26
Q

thyroxin and triiodothyronine

A

both act to stimulate the metabolic rate of the body

27
Q

goiter

A

enlarged thyroid

28
Q

calcitonin

A

a hormone that controls the level of calcium in the blood

when blood calcium is high, calcium is deposited back into the bones

is antagonistic to the parathyroid hormone

29
Q

hyperthyroidism

A

is the excessive functional activity of the thyroid gland

often the gland enlarges to create a goiter

symptoms; heart palpations, rapid pulse, profuse sweating,, insomnia, nervousness, and excitability

graves disease

treated by destroying some or all of the thyroid gland with radioactive iodine therapy or by surgically removing part or all of the thyroid gland

30
Q

Graves disease

A

hyperthyroidism

is characterized by a strained, tense facial expression and bulging eyes

31
Q

hypothyroidism

A

deficient thyroid activity

symptoms are opposite of hyperthyroidism; slow heart rate. sluggish mental and physical activity; bloated, edemic appearance; and muscle weakness

32
Q

cretinism

A

is caused by lack of thyroxin during fetal development and results in a dwarfed stature and mental retardation

easily treated with oral thyroxin supplements

33
Q

parathyroid glands

A

two pairs of parathyroid glands, situated on each lobe and behind the thyroid, produce parathormone

34
Q

parathormone

A

regulates the blood level of calcium

calcium from the bone is absorbed into the blood

35
Q

parathormone vs. calcitonin

A

antagonist; they work together to maintain proper calcium levels in the blood

parathormone, when calcium in blood is low;
calcium from bone into blood

calcitonin, when calcium in the blood is high;
calcium from the blood into the bone

36
Q

hyperparathyroidism

A

causes loss of calcium from the bones and excessive excretion of calcium and phosphorus from the kidneys

bones become brittle and prone to fracture

tendency toward kidney stones and disease

37
Q

hypoparathyroidism

A

results in low blood calcium. Which makes the nervous activity hypersensitive

main characteristics; tetany

38
Q

tetany

A

a sustained muscle contraction that usually affects the hands and feet

39
Q

Thymus

A

located behind the sternum and above the heart

has endocrine and lymphatic functions and in most people active until puberty, at which time it begins to diminish

produces several related hormones that are essential in developing and maintaining our immune system

the main purpose is to stimulate lymphoid tissue to produce T-lymphocytes

40
Q

Pancreas

A

located behind the stomach and has both endocrine and exocrine functions

produces digestive enzymes for the small intestine, through the pancreatic duct (exocrine)

islets of langerhans produce the hormones, insulin and glucagon, which are secreted directly into the bloodstream (endocrine)

41
Q

islets of langerhans

A

scattered throughout the pancreas are small groups of specialized cells

that produce the hormones insulin and glucagon

secreted directly into the bloodstream

42
Q

insulin

A

regulates the movement of glucose across the cell membrane so that when there is an increased level of glucose in the blood (after meals) secretion of insulin into the blood causes a rapid intake of glucose by most tissues in the body, especially the muscles, liver, and adipose tissue

also plays an important role in protein and fat transport and metabolism

43
Q

diabetes mellitus

A

is a condition caused by decreased output of insulin by the pancreatic islets

cell metabolism doesn’t get enough glucose

since there is a high blood glucose and its not being used, it gets discharged by the kidneys into the urine

glucose in the urine is a major sign of diabetes

causes increase in lipids and decrease in ph in the blood
artherosclerosis from lipids. coma from low ph

poor circulation.
heart failure
blindness because of retinas
vascular disorders in legs can lead to gangrene

treatment by controlled diet, exercise, and a controlled program of insulin injections

glucagon; antagonistic of insulin. acts to convert glycogen stored in the liver into glucose, thereby increasing glucose

44
Q

Adrenal

A

are situated on top of each kidney

each have two distinct parts, the medulla and the adrenal cortex, that produces different hormones

45
Q

the two principle hormones produced by the medulla are…

A

epinephrine and norepinephrine

stimulation of the medulla comes from the sympathetic nervous system. Fight or flight.

cause the bronchioles to dilate, the heart rate to increase, the blood pressure to elevate, and glycogen to convert to glucose, preparing for work

46
Q

the adrenal cortex produces a group of hormones called..

A

corticosteroids

more than 30 steroids

  • > mineralocorticoids; affects the extra cellular electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium
  • ->aldosterone; regulates the sodium / potassium balance in the extracellular fluid and in the blood
  • > glucocorticoids; affects carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
  • ->cortisol (hydrocortisone); have the ability to repress or resolve conditions of inflammation and enhance the rate of healing of damaged tissue

The production of hormones by the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland

47
Q

hyperadrenalism

A

excessive release of adrenal hormones into the bloodstream

effects and symptoms depend on which hormone is secreted in excess

Cushing’s syndrome

48
Q

cushing’s syndrome

A

results from excess glucocorticoid production and is characterized by obesity, muscle weakness, elevated blood sugar, and hypertension, and arteriosclerosis

49
Q

hypoadrenalism

A

aka Addison’s disease

is due to the failure of the adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone and cortisol.

characterized by weight loss, muscle fatigue or atrophy, low blood pressure, and darkened skin pigmentation

50
Q

testes

A

two small, egg shaped glands that produce the spermatozoa

51
Q

testosterone

A

is a male hormone responsible for development of secondary sexual characteristics

52
Q

estrogen

A

is a female hormone responsible for development of secondary sexual characteristics

53
Q

progesterone

A

a female hormone that prepares the uterine lining for implantation, aids maintaining pregnancy, and stimulates development of mammary glands for nursing

54
Q

ovaries

A

are glandular organs in the pelvis that produce the ovum and female sex hormones

55
Q

respiratory system

A

to carry on vital functions of the organism, the cells of the body require a continual supply of oxygen, and the removal of carbon dioxide

includes the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and the lungs

56
Q

the lungs are composed of…(4)

A

spongy tissue, blood vessels, connective tissue, and microscopic air sacs called alveoli

57
Q

respiration is the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen that takes place at three levels in the body…(3)

A
  1. external respiration; takes place in the lungs
  2. internal respiration; between the cells of the body and blood
  3. cellular respiration or oxidation; occurs within the cell
58
Q

what happens to air that is inhaled and passes through the nasal cavity?

A

it is warmed, moistened, and filtered

59
Q

breathing***

A

external respiration, also called ventilation or breathing

involves the act of inhaling and exhaling air, resulting in an exchange of gases between the blood and alveoli

60
Q

Depending on a person’s lung capacity, the natural rate of breathing for an adult is…***

A

between 10 and 20 times a minute

61
Q

a healthy respiratory system is maintained by…***

A

avoiding air pollution, toxic chemicals, and smoking

deep breathing, regular exercise, and a healthy diet all help to keep the respiratory system function normally

62
Q

common cold

A

aka upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)

Viral infection, over 200 different types

spread through physical contact

symptoms; nasal discharge and congestion, mild fever, sore throat, dry coughing, headache

contraindicated; massage tends to stir up more toxins and exacerbate the symptoms

63
Q

influenza

A

flu

viral infection, similar to the cold but cause by different viruses.

spread by physical contact or airborne

symptoms; coughing, sneezing, congestion, and general malaise can follow for up to two weeks

common complication because of the body in a weakened condition, it is a possible secondary bacterial infection
(bronchitis, pneumonia)

contraindicated

64
Q

pneumonia

A

pneumonitis terms to describe any type of inflammation of the lungs.

many different types of viruses and bacteria that cause pneumonia

symptoms; coughing, chills, high fever, body aches, chest pains, cyanosis, thickened yellow/green or blood streaked phlegm.

contraindicated, besides in the subacute stage to use percussion to help break up the phlegm

65
Q

sinusitis

A

the swelling or inflammation of the paranasal sinus cavities

can occur as a reaction to allergies, nasal obstructions, or infections

symptoms; localized tenderness, pressure headaches, runny nose, congestion, or facial and tooth pain

as long as no viral or bacterial infection is present, massage can benefit

66
Q

tuberculosis

A

TB, bacteria

highly infectious airborne disease that can begin in the lungs and spread to other parts of the body

cause by an infection of the mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria

the bacterial infection can sit dormant for years in a healthy body before the person contracts the disease

bacterial infections rarely has symptoms

disease symptoms; night sweats, fatigue, and a cough that will start dry but later begin to be productive of bloody or pus filled phlegm

contraindicated