Chapter 5: The American Revolution and Confederation 1774-1787 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: The American Revolution and Confederation 1774-1787 Deck (22):
1

First Continental Congress (1774)

The colonies, except Georgia, sent delegates to a convention in Philadelphia, loyalists not represented
~Welcomed radicals, moderates, and conservatives
~Discussed how the colonies would react to the British attack on their liberties

2

Samuel Adams

A delegate in the Continental Congress from Massachusetts and helped to lead the "radical" faction there
~Started the Committees of Correspondence
~Marked the Boston Massacre
~Cousin of John Adams

3

John Adams

A delegate in the Continental Congress from Massachusetts and helped to lead the "radical" faction there
~Defended and acquitted the British troops in the Boston Massacre
~Lawyer
~Samuel Adams' less radical cousin

4

George Washington

A delegate in the Continental Congress from Virginia and helped to represent the "moderate" faction there
~A colonel who helped fight in the French and Indian War

5

John Jay

A delegate in the Continental Congress from New York and helped to represent the "conservative" faction there
~Favored a mild statement of protest

6

Paul Revere

Warned the minutemen of the upcoming British invasion to seize colonial military supplies

7

Lexington and Concord

General Thomas Gage sent a large force to seize colonial military supplies in Concord
~Paul Revere warned the minutemen to be ready and so at Lexington the British met the militia men
~Minutemen forced to retreat under heavy British fire at Lexington
~At Concord the British destroyed some supplies and on the way back to Boston were attacked by many militia men firing from behind stone walls
~250 British casualties

8

Battle of Bunker Hill

The first true battle of the Revolution fought outside Boston
~A British force attacked the colonists defending the hill (Breed's Hill not Bunker Hill) and were unable to take the hill
~Americans won a small victory for causing so many casualties amongst the British

9

Second Continental Congress (1775)

Met, soon after fighting broke out in Boston, in Philadelphia
~Congress divided between two groups: New England who wanted to declare their independence, and Middle Colonies who wanted to try rebuilding the relationship between America and England
~Appointed George Washington as Commander-in-Chief of colonial army and sent him to aid the Boston militia
~Sent Benedict Arnold and troops to raid Quebec to separate it from England and a new navy was built to attack British shipping

10

Olive Branch Petition

An attempt to make peace with King George III in order to preserve the heritage of America as well as relations with England
~The colonists pledged their loyalty and asked the king to intercede with Parliament to secure peace and the protection of colonial rights
~King George III angrily dismissed Congress' plea and signed the Prohibitory Act which declared the colonies in rebellion
~After a few months Parliament forbade all trade with the Americans as well as shipping

11

"Common Sense"

A pamphlet published by Thomas Paine voicing a, at that point, radical argument
~Argued that the colonies should become independent states and break all political ties with the English monarchy
~Argued that common sense is that a large land, like America, shouldn't be ruled by a smaller distant land, like England, with a corrupt government

12

Declaration of Independence

A solution offered to the Second Continental Congress by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia
~Declared the colonies to be independent
~5 delegates wrote up a statement to support Lee's argument
~Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, the statement listed the grievances against George III's government and expressed the grounds for a revolution

13

Patriots (Whigs)

People who joined actively in the struggle against Britain
~Largest number were from the New England states and Virginia
~Served in local militia for short periods, thus Washington never had more than 20,000 under-equipped, malnourished, and under paid troops
~Initially African Americans were not allowed to fight, but after a while, slaves who joined were offered freedom

14

Loyalists (Tories)

The Pro British group who joined the British army
~Largest number in New York, New Jersey and Georgia
~Majority tended to be wealthier
~Native Americans joined after promises of the stop of Westward settlement

15

Valley Forge

Where Washington's militia camped through the harsh winter of 1777-1778 after losing Philadelphia

16

Battle of Saratoga

An American victory and turning point in the war
~British marched from Canada in an attempt to join up with other forces marching from the West and South
~Objective: Cut New England off from the rest of the states
~They were attacked at Saratoga by American troops under Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold

17

Battle of Yorktown

The last major battle in the Revolutionary War fought near Yorktown, Virginia on the shores of the Chesapeake Bay
~Washington's army forced the surrender of the British army under General Cornwallis'
~Americans received a lot of naval help from the French as well as military forces

18

Treaty of Paris (1783)

The end of fighting during the Revolutionary war. Made it so:
1. Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation
2. The United States went from the Mississippi to the Atlantic
3. Americans could legally fish off the coast of Canada
4. Americans would pay debts owed to British merchants and honor loyalist claims for property confiscated during the war

19

Articles of Confederation

John Dickinson's Constitution for the United States of America as a nation, adopted by Congress in 1777
~Established a central government that consisted of a Congress. Had to get 9/13 of the votes to pass laws and 13/13 votes to amend the Articles
~The power to wage war was given to Congress as well as to make treaties, send diplomatic representatives, and borrow money
~Congress could not: regulate commerce or collect taxes

20

Land Ordinance of 1785

Congress established a policy for surveying and selling western lands
~Provided for setting aside one section of land in each township for public education

21

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

For the land lying between the Great Lake and the Ohio River, Congress passed and ordinance that set rules for creating a new state
~Granted limited self-government to the territory
~Prohibited slavery

22

Shay's Rebellion

Captain Daniel Shays a Massachusetts farmer, led farmers in an uprising against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt and lack of paper money
~Rebel farmers stopped the collection of taxes and forced the closing of debtors prisons
~Eventually Massachusetts militia stopped Shay