Chapter 5 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Geology 4 Test 2 > Chapter 5 Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 Vocabulary Deck (21):
1

weathering

The group of processes that change rock at or near Earth's surface

2

chemical weathering

The decomposition of rock resulting from exposure to water and atmospheric gases

3

transportation

The movement of eroded particles by agents such as rivers, waves, glaciers, or wind

4

mechanical weathering

The physical disintegration of rock into smaller pieces

5

exfoliation dome

A large, rounded landform developed in a massive rock, such as granite, by the process of exfoliation

6

spheroidal weathering

Occurs where rock has been rounded by weathering from an initial blocky shape

7

frost wedging

A type of frost action in which the expansion of freezing water pries a rock apart

8

pressure release

A significant type of mechanical weathering that causes rocks to crack when overburden is removed

9

sheet joints

Cracks that develop parallel to the outer surface of a large mass of expanding rock, as pressure is released during unloading

10

A horizon

The top layer of soil, characterized by the downward movement of water (also called zone of leaching)

11

B horizon (zone of accumulation)

A soil layer characterized by the accumulation of material leached downward from the A horizon above

12

C horizon

A soil layer composed of incompletely weathered parent material

13

hematite

A type of iron oxide that has a brick-red color when powdered; Fe2O3

14

limonite

A type of iron oxide that is yellowish-brown when powdered; Fe2O3 • nH2O

15

soil

A layer of weathered, unconsolidated material on top of bedrock; often also defined as containing organic matter and being capable of supporting plant growth.

16

loam

Soil containing approximately equal amounts of sand, silt, and clay

17

soil horizons

Any of the layers of soil that are distinguishable by characteristic physical or chemical properties

18

O horizon

Dark-colored soil layer that is rich in organic material and forms just below surface vegetation

19

E horizon (zone of leaching)

Soil horizon that is the zone of leaching, characterized by the downward movement of water and removal of fine-grained soil components

20

residual soil

Soil that develops directly from weathering of the rock below

21

transported soil

Soil not formed from the local rock but from parent material brought in from some other region and deposited, usually by running water, wind, or glacial ice