Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (40):
The modification through experience of pre-existing behavior and understanding.
The process of adapting to stimuli that don't change.
A procedure in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until the neutral stimulus alone come to elicit similar response.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
A stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
The automatic or unlearned reaction to a stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The original neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response.
Conditioned Response (CR)
The response that the conditioned stimulus elicits.
The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response due to elimination of the association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
The quick relearning of a conditioned response following extinction.
The reappearance of the conditioned response after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
A phenomenon in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus.
A process through which individuals learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and respond appropriately to each one.
A phenomenon in which a conditioned stimulus acts like a an unconditioned stimulus, creating conditioned stimuli out of events associated with it.
Law of Effect
A law stating that if a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is followed by a reward, that response is more likely the next time the stimulus is encountered.
A process through which responses are learned that produce some rewarding effect.
A process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences.
A response that has some effect on the world.
A stimulus event that increases the possibility that the response that immediately preceded it will occur again.
Stimuli that strengthen a response if they follow that response.
The removal of unpleasant stimuli, such a pain.
A type of learning in which an organism learns to make a particular response in order to terminate an aversive stimulus.
A type of learning in which an organism responds to a signal on a way that avoids exposure to an aversive stimulus.
Stimuli that signals whether reinforcement is available of a certain response is made.
The process of reinforcing responses that come successively closer to the desired response.
Reinforcers that meet an organism's basic needs.
A reward that people or animals learn to like.
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
A pattern in which a reinforcer is delivered every time a particular response occurs.
Partial reinforcement Schedule
A pattern in which a reinforcer is only administered some of the time a particular response occurs.
Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedule
A partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement following a fixed number of responses.
Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedule
A PR schedule that provides reinforcement after a varying number of responses.
Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule
A PR schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time has passed since the last reward.
Variable-Interval (VI) Schedule
A PR schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response after some varying interval of time.
Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect
A phenomenon in which behaviors learned under PR schedule are more difficult to extinguish than those behaviors learned on a continuous reinforcement schedule.
Presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant stimulus.
A failure to try to exert control over the environment when an organism has, or believes that it has, no control.
Learning that is not demonstrated at the time occurs.
A mental representation, or picture, of the environment.
A sudden understanding about what is required to solve a problem.
Learning how to preform new behaviors by watching others.