Chapter 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (57):
1

What is the largest organ in the body?

Skin

2

What is the epidermis?

keratinized straitified squamous epithelium

3

What is the dermis?

connective tissue layer

4

What is the hypodermis?

Fat layer

5

What are the 6 functions of the skin?

Resistance to trauma, barrier to ultraviolet, vitamin d synthesis, sensory receptors, thermoreceptors, nonverbal communication

6

What are stem cells?

cells in deepest layer

7

What are keratinocytes?

most skin cells

8

What are melanocytes?

Shield UV

9

What are tactile/merkel cells?

nerve cells

10

What are dendritic cells?

guard against pathogens

11

What is the single layer of cells on the basement membrane?

stratum basale

12

What is the stratum spinosum?

layers of keratinocytes

13

What is the stratum granulosum?

3 to 5 layers of keratinocytes

14

What is the stratum lucidum?

translucent zone in thick skin

15

What is th stratum corneum?

up to 30 layers of dead, scaly, keratinized cells

16

What is the life cycle of keratinocytes? (4)

1. produced by stem cells
2. new cells push older towards surface
3. cells fill with keratin
4. cells die

17

What is the dermis composed of?

Collagen, elastic and reticular fibers, and fibroblasts

18

What is the dermal papillae?

extensions of dermis into epidermis

19

What are the layers of the dermis?

papillary layer and reticular layer

20

What is the most superficial layer of the skin?

They hypodermis

21

What is hemoglobin?

Red pigment of red blood cells

22

What is carotene?

yellow pigment

23

What is melanin?

brown pigment

24

What is cyanosis?

blue color from lack of oxygen

25

what is erythema?

redness due to dilated cutaneous vessels

26

What is jaundice?

yellowing of skin due to excess bilirubin in blood

27

What is bronzing?

golden-brown color skin

28

what is pallor?

pale skin from lack of blood flow

29

what is albinism?

genetic lack of melanin

30

what is a hematoma?

a bruise

31

What are freckles and moles composed of?

excessive melanocytes

32

What are flexion creases?

creases in skin by repeated closing of hand

33

what are flexion lines?

form in wrist and elbow areas

34

what is hair composed of?

hard keratin

35

what are the 3 different hair types?

lanugo, vellus, and terminal

36

What is the hair shaft?

above the skin

37

what is the hair follicle?

oblique tube within the skin

38

What are the 3 stages of the hair cycle?

anagen (growth)
catagen (shrinking)
telogen (resting)

39

What is the term for thinning or baldness?

alopecia

40

What is hirsutism?

excessive hair growth

41

What are guard hairs?

prevent foreign objects from getting into nose, eyes, or ears

42

What are merocrine glands?

simple tubular gland

43

what are apocrine glands?

produce sweat

44

What are sebaceous glands?

oily secretion glands

45

What are ceruminous glands?

only in external ear canal

46

What are mammary glands?

found only during lactation and pregnancy

47

What is polythelia?

additional nipples

48

What is basal cell carcinoma?

least dangerous skin cancer

49

what is squamous cell carcinoma?

medium dangerous skin cancer

50

What is malignant melanoma?

most deadly skin cancer

51

What does 1st degree burn?

only epidermis

52

What does 2nd degree burn?

epidermis and some dermis

53

What does 3rd degree burn?

epidermis and dermis

54

What is an autograft?

tissue from person needing graft

55

what is an isograft?

tissue from identical twin

56

what is a homograft?

tissue from unrelated person

57

what is a heterograft?

tissue from another species, mostly pig