Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (126):
What is the main purpose of Congress?
Is Congress Bicameral of Unicameral?
What are the two sections of Congress?
How long is a Congressional Term in the House?
The House of Reps is the upper or lower part of Congress?
How many members are in the House?
What is House membership based on?
What is EVERY state guaranteed in the House?
At least 1 member
How often can the Census Bureau change the House "rules"?
Every 10 years
What is reapportionment?
Readjusting Congressional seats
Who decides the number of Congressmen?
Who divides the people for Congress?
What Supreme Court case ruled "equal population" in 1964?
Wesberry vs. Sanders
What is gerrymandering?
A political party that's in charge of the State Legislature will draw the districts so their political party has the advantage.
How many members are up for reelection every two years?
How many term limits are there?
What are the qualifications to be a member of the House?
1. 25 years old
2. US citizen for 7 years
3. Resident of the state you represent
Who is the Presiding Officer in the House?
The Speaker of the House
How is the Speaker chosen?
1. He must be a member of the House
2. He is chosen among the members
Who is the current S.o.t.H.?
John Boehner (R) from Ohio
What 3 men from TN served as the S.o.t.H.?
1. John Bell (Whig) 1830s
2. James K. Polk (D) 1840s
3. Joseph Burns (D) 1930s
What house is the Upper House of Congress?
How many members does every state have?
2, equaling 100 total members
How long are the Senate's terms?
How many Senators are up for reelection every 2 years?
What did the -7th amendment say regarding Congress?
Senators are chosen by the people
What are the qualifications for Senators?
1. 30 years old
2. US citizen for 10 years
3. Inhabitant of the state they're running for
Who is the Presiding Officer of the Senate?
Who is the Presiding Officer when the VP is not present?
President Pro Tempore
The President Pro Tempore is the senior member of what?
The majority party
Who is the current President Pro Tempore?
Patrick Leahy (D) from Vermont
Who are the 4 men from TN who have served as President Pro Tempore?
1. Joseph Anderson (R) 1880s
2. Hugh Lawson White (Whig) 1830s
3. Isham Harris (D) 1890s
4. Kenneth Mckellar (D) 1930s
What are the Congressional Duties?
2. Committee Member
3. Represent their constituents
4. Servants of their constituents
What do legislators do?
What do Committee Members do?
Certain committees deal with certain issues
By representing their constituents, Congressmen represent what?
The people's needs
By being servants of their constituents, Congressmen are what?
There to help the people at home
What are the 4 voting options?
What is a Trustee Vote?
Voting with your own judgement
What is a Delegated Vote?
Voting the way the people want you to vote
What is a Partisan Vote?
Voting the way your party votes
What is a Politico Vote?
Using all three options
What 8 things do Congressmen get as compensation?
1. $174,000 a year
2. Free medical care
3. Free parking in DC
4. Free travel
5. Receive money for an office in their state
6. Retirement/Pension plan
7. Free mailing (franking privilege)
8. Cannot be arrested while Congress is in session
What 3 ways can you avoid constituent pressure?
1. Vote both ways on a bill
2. Be absent during the vote
3. Use the different types of voting
What are the different types of voting?
1. Voice Vote
2. Division Vote
3. "Passing in front of the Teller"
4. Roll-Call Vote
What is patronage?
Efforts to help constituents by personally providing jobs, public works or benefits, as a favor.
What is the "Pork Barrel" Legislation?
Bills composed of items of patronage, named and located in specific districts.
What is a Private Bill?
Proposal to grant some kind of relief, special privilege or exemption to the person named in the bill.
Who is an example of a Private Bill?
What are the 7 Responsibilities of Congress?
1. Statutes (laws)
2. Oversight of Investigation
3. Oversight of Citizens
4. Advice and Consent
6. Direct Committee Government
7. Legislative Veto
What are the 4 Acts for Statutes?
1. Authorization Acts
2. Revenue Acts
3. Appropriation Acts
4. Private Acts
What are the Authorization Acts?
Giving the government power to do something
What are the Revenue Acts?
Raising money (taxes)
What are the Appropriation Acts?
Spending of money
What are the Private Acts?
The Private Bills
What three things fall under Oversight of Administration?
What are hearings?
An inquiry conducted by Congress to build a record on a specific bill, already introduced.
What is an investigation?
Authorization by Congress for a committee to examine a broad area, or problem, rather than a specific bill.
What is the most current investigation?
What are the Supervision-Lobbiests?
People who represent an industry or group who tries to persuade Congressmen.
What is an example of a Lobbiest?
National Rifle Association
What are the two parts of the Oversight if Citizens?
What is an example of the Oversight of Citizens and what did that do?
House of UnAmerican Activities Committee- looked for communists in America
What must the Senate do under Advice and Consent?
MUST approve ALL presidential appointments and treaties
Under Debate, what can any Congressman do?
Have the freedom to debate any issue without fear of being arrested
What is the Direct Committee Government?
Practice if delegating certain Congressional powers, from the whole Congress, to one of its committees.
What is an example of Direct Committee Government?
What is the Legislative Veto?
A statute permitting the President to propose changes in administrative organization, procedure or regulation, which becomes law if Congress does NOT act within 60 days
What is a strict interpretation of the constitution?
Following it exactly- only doing what it says
What is a broad interpretation of the constitution?
If it's not forbidden, you can still do it.
What are the expressed powers?
Powers specifically stated.
What are some examples of expressed powers?
2. Borrow Money
6. Foreign Relations Powers
7. War Powers
9. Postal Power
11. Weights and Measures
12. Territories and DC
13. Judicial Power
What is a tax?
A charge levied by government on people/property to meet public need.
What are the two types of taxes?
Direct and Indirect
What is a direct tax?
Paid person on whom it's imposed on.
What is an indirect tax?
Paid first by the person, then passed to someone else in the form of higher taxes.
What does "regulation of commerce" mean?
Regulate the foreign and domestic trading.
What does Congress have the power to do with money?
Under the Foreign Relations, who MUST approve all treaties?
Under the War Powers, what 2 things can Congress do?
1. Raise an army
2. Declare war
What did the War Powers Resolution of 1973 do?
Gave the president the authority to send in the military for 60 days- after that he must have Congress's approval to keep them there
What is naturalization?
The process of becoming a US citizen
Who has power over the post office, according to the Postal Powers?
Congress must approve all of what in the Judicial Powers?
What are implied powers?
Powers that are not specific- very general
What is the primary example of implied powers?
The Necessary and Proper (Elastic) Clause
What is the Elastic clause?
It allows Congress's power to grow.
What are the 6 types of Nonlegislative powers?
1. Constitutional Amendments
2. Electoral Duties
4. Executive Powers
5. Investigatory Powers
6. Eminent Domain
What are the Electoral Duties?
Congress elects the president and Vice President if the electoral college fails. (House choses president, Senate choses the VP)
What is impeachment?
Bringing charges against the president
Who brings the charges against the president?
Where does the impeachment trial take place?
What are the executive powers?
Approving treaties/presidential appointments
What is Eminent Domain?
When the government takes private property for public use.
The committee system has what kind of hierarchy?
What are The 4 types of Committees?
What are the Standing Committees?
Committees that are always in existence
What are three examples of Standing Committees?
1. Ag committee
2. Armed services committee
3. Vet's affairs committee
What are the Select committees?
Temporary committees that meet for a specific purpose (usually involving an investigation)
What are Joint Committees?
Committee rage has Members of both houses (Senate and H.R.) and usually involves an investigation
What are the Conference Committees?
Committees having members from both houses that draft a compromise bill that will be accepted by both houses of Congress
What is a bill?
What is joint-resolution?
When a bill is not a law, but it has the temporary force of law
What is Concurrent-resolution?
A dealing with something where the House and Senate MUST act together (makes a statement)
What is Simple-resolution?
1 particular house of Congress deals with a rule or a procedure
What is a Rider?
Provision that will not pass on its own, so it's attached to a major piece if legislation.
What is the First Reading?
Where a bill is introduced, numbered, titled, and a brief summary is given. It's entered into the Congressional journal and sent to a committee
What are the 5 different things a committee can do during the first reading?
1. Report the bill favorable
2. Refuse to report on the bill (pigeonhole)
3. Report the bill in an amended form
4. Report the bill unfavorable
5. Report a committee bill
What happens if Congress pigeonholes?
The bill dies- Congress does nothing with the bill
What way are most bills reported?
In an amended form
What does 'report a committee bill' mean?
Congress rewrites an entirely new bill, but it has the same concepts as before.
What happens during the 2nd reading?
What is floor consideration?
Where the Committee of the whole (whole Senate or House) can discuss the bill
What happens on the 3rd reading?
The final product is produced and voted on
The president can do what with new bills?
3. Pocket Veto
What happens when the president signs a bill?
It becomes law
What percentage of Congress can override the President's veto?
What is a pocket veto?
If Congress adjourns 10 days after sending a bill to the president, and the president does nothing, the bill dies.
What unit of Congress has a time limit on debates?
Which unit of Congress doesn't have a time limit on debates?
What is a filibuster?
An attempt to "talk a bill to death"
What does a filibuster do?
Delays the bill
What can a Congressman not do when giving a filibuster?
Sit, lean, go to the bathroom, etc.
Who holds the record for the longest filibuster?
How do you prevent filibusters?