the process of focusing on specific objects while ignoring others
what is the purpose of attention
to prevent system overload we withdraw from certain things in order to deal with others more effectively
each time you let your fovea pause on one thing
saccadic eye movement
the rapid movement from one fixation to the next
When freely viewing a scene how often do you move your eyes
3xs per second
attention that involves directly looking at the attended object
attention without looking
physical properties like color, movement and orientation that make a particular object/location seem important
when attention due to stimulus salience causes an involuntary shift of attention
the viewer's knowledge about what is supposed to be in typical scenes
the probability of different things occuring in a changing environment
What directs our attention?
- Stimulus salience
- Top-down processing
- Goals of a task
What three things can happen when we attend to something?
- We respond faster to it
- It is easier to perceive
- Enhances our neural firing
attention to a specific location
What did the precuing studies reveal?
Processing is more effective at the place attention is directed to
the fast responding that happens when cued enhancement spreads within an object
In what ways does attention influence neuronal responses?
- The thing being attended to determines where processing occurs
- Different locations of attendance (outside of fovea) occur in different brain locations
- Attention can shift the location of a neuron's receptive field
stimulus that is not attended to is not perceived even if you are looking directly at it
Who created the gorilla experiment?
Simons and Chabris
the difficulty of detecting changes in scenes
What helps change blindness
Cues for where the change occurs
Is attention necessary to perceive?
No, you can obtain gist information
task irrelevant stimuli
stimuli that don't give information that is relevant to the task we are doing
What effects the way we are distracted?
- The salience of the distraction
- How difficult the task at hand is (easier task means we are more easily distracted)
- How much of our perceptual capacity is being used
load theory of attention
the amount of perceptual capacity left over during a task determines how well the person can avoid being distracted by task-irrelevant stimuli
the level of capacity that can be used to carry out a task
the amount of a person's perceptual capacity that is needed to carry out a task
low-load tasks and high-load tasks
the process where features like color, shape, etc. are put together to create out perception of a coherent object
the binding problem
how each feature of an object are bound together by the brain
feature integration theory
Preattentive stage: objects are analyzed into separate features
Focused attentive stage: features are combined to perceive the object
believing to have perceived a combination of features from different stimuli
parietal lobe damage
inability to focus attention on individual objects
How did R.M's Balint's syndrome support feature integration theory?
he could not focus his attention very well so therefore it made it difficult for him to combine features correctly
In what situation were illusory conjunctions overcame?
when top-down processing was used as an aid (ex: carrot, lake, tire)
types of visual search
feature search (one feature)
visual search (multiple features)