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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (35):
1

attention

the process of focusing on specific objects while ignoring others

2

what is the purpose of attention

to prevent system overload we withdraw from certain things in order to deal with others more effectively

3

fixation

each time you let your fovea pause on one thing

4

saccadic eye movement

the rapid movement from one fixation to the next

5

When freely viewing a scene how often do you move your eyes

3xs per second

6

overt attention

attention that involves directly looking at the attended object

7

covert attention

attention without looking

8

stimulus salience

physical properties like color, movement and orientation that make a particular object/location seem important

9

attentional capture

when attention due to stimulus salience causes an involuntary shift of attention

10

scene schemas

the viewer's knowledge about what is supposed to be in typical scenes

top-down processing

11

scene statistics

the probability of different things occuring in a changing environment

12

What directs our attention?

  1. Stimulus salience
  2. Top-down processing 
  3. Goals of a task

 

13

What three things can happen when we attend to something?

  1. We respond faster to it
  2. It is easier to perceive
  3. Enhances our neural firing

 

14

spatial attention

attention to a specific location

15

What did the precuing studies reveal?

Processing is more effective at the place attention is directed to

16

same-object advantage

the fast responding that happens when cued enhancement spreads within an object

17

In what ways does attention influence neuronal responses?

  1. The thing being attended to determines where processing occurs
  2. Different locations of attendance (outside of fovea) occur in different brain locations
  3. Attention can shift the location of a neuron's receptive field

 

18

inattentional blindness

stimulus that is not attended to is not perceived even if you are looking directly at it

19

Who created the gorilla experiment?

Simons and Chabris

20

change blindness

the difficulty of detecting changes in scenes

21

What helps change blindness

Cues for where the change occurs

22

Is attention necessary to perceive?

No, you can obtain gist information

23

task irrelevant stimuli

stimuli that don't give information that is relevant to the task we are doing

24

What effects the way we are distracted?

  1. The salience of the distraction
  2. How difficult the task at hand is (easier task means we are more easily distracted)
  3. How much of our perceptual capacity is being used

 

25

load theory of attention

Lavie

the amount of perceptual capacity left over during a task determines how well the person can avoid being distracted by task-irrelevant stimuli

26

perceptual capacity

the level of capacity that can be used to carry out a task

27

perceptual load

the amount of a person's perceptual capacity that is needed to carry out a task

low-load tasks and high-load tasks

28

binding

the process where features like color, shape, etc. are put together to create out perception of a coherent object

29

the binding problem

how each feature of an object are bound together by the brain

30

feature integration theory

Who

2 stages

Treisman

Preattentive stage: objects are analyzed into separate features

Focused attentive stage: features are combined to perceive the object

31

illusory conjunctions

believing to have perceived a combination of features from different stimuli

32

Balint's syndrome

parietal lobe damage

inability to focus attention on individual objects

33

How did R.M's Balint's syndrome support feature integration theory?

he could not focus his attention very well so therefore it made it difficult for him to combine features correctly

34

In what situation were illusory conjunctions overcame?

when top-down processing was used as an aid (ex: carrot, lake, tire)

35

types of visual search

feature search (one feature)

visual search (multiple features)