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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (32):
1

phobias

irrational fears of specific objects or situations

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classical (pavlovian) conditioning

a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus, involuntary responses

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unconditioned stimulus

stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning

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unconditioned response

an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning

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conditioned stimulus

a previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response

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conditioned response

a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning

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evaluative conditioning

changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli

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acquisition

the initial stage of learning something

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extinction

the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency , occurs when conditioned stimulus is consistently presented alone

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stimuli that are ___ are more likely to be conditioned stimuli

new, unusual, especially intense

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spontaneous recovery

reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non exposure to the conditioned stimulus

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renewal effect

response comes back if animal returns to the environment where it was learned

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stimulus generalization

organism responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus

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stimulus discrimination

organism does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus

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higher-order conditioning

a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus

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operant conditioning

a form of learning in which responses are controlled by their consequences, voluntary responses

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reinforcement

an event following a response increasing organism's tendency to repeat that response

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primary reinforcers

events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs

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secondary/conditioned reinforcers

events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers

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shaping

repeatedly reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desired response until the desired response in achieved

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discriminative stimuli

clues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences of a response

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intermittent reinforcement

makes a response more resistant to extinction, works better

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positive reinforcement

response is strengthened, followed by a rewarding stimulus

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negative reinforcement

response is strengthened, followed by removal of unpleasant stimulus

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escape learning

organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some unpleasant stimulation

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avoidance learning

organism acquires a response that prevents some unpleasant stimulation from occurring

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why are phobias hard to get rid of?

1. avoidance measures get reinforced by avoiding fear
2. prevent any conditioned response by never being exposed to the fear

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punishment

an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response

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preparedness

species-specific predispositions to be conditioned in certain ways (fears that are threats to survival)

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observational learning

occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, called models

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ratio schedules

organism must make the designated response a certain number of times to gain reinforcement

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interval schedules

require a time period to pass between the presentation of reinforcers