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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (84):
1

The ability to do work (to move matter)

Energy

2

Stored energy available to do work

Potential energy

3

Examples of potential energy

Chemicals and body, height, energy of electrons

4

More potential energy as they move up the shells of orbitals

Energy of electrons

5

Energy of motion

Kinetic Energy

6

Different forms of energy

Light, heat, mechanical, chemical, sound

7

Unit of energy; The amount of energy required to raise 1 g of water 1°C

calorie

8

Calorie = __ = __=__

Kcal=C=1000 calories
(Stuff in food)

9

The amount of energy required to raise 1 kg of water 1°C

Calorie

10

First law of thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy)

Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be converted to other forms

11

First law of thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant

12

Example of first law of thermodynamics

The lamp light that uses light energy comes from electricity that uses electric energy

13

Second law of thermodynamics (law of entropy)

When energy is transformed from one form to another, some energy is lost in the form of heat

14

The converting of energy is __

Inefficient

15

Energy is __ when it is transformed

Being wasted in the form of heat

16

Tendency towards disorder; all energy transformations head toward disorders; it is always increasing

Entropy

17

Some of all chemical reactions in a cell

Metabolism

18

Are reactions that are making molecules

Anabolism

19

Reactions that breakdown molecules

Catabolism

20

What bonds are made energy is stored, when bonds are broken energy is released

Reactions

21

Short term energy storage

Glycogen

22

Long-term energy storage

Lipid

23

Require the input of energy molecules are built (anabolic), Energy is stored

Endergonic

24

In endergonic reactions, __>>__, the __ contains more energy

Reactants >> products
Products

25

Release energy (breaking bonds)

Exergonic reactions

26

In exergonic reactions, __>>__, __ is released

Products>>reactants
Energy

27

Unit of energy in cell

ATP

28

The __ bond contains just the right amount of __ to carry out __

third
Energy
Metabolic reactions

29

How to make this to carry out metabolic reactions

ATP

30

ATP is broken down into __ and __ in order to __

ADP and P
Do work

31

Glucose is converted into __

ATP

32

One reaction drives another reaction

Coupled reactions

33

Adding phosphate to molecule (almost always talking about ADP+P>>ATP)

Phosphorylation

34

ATP functions

Chemical work, transport work, mechanical work

35

Building of molecules

Chemical work

36

Moving thing within cell, across cell (plasma membrane)

Transport work

37

Movement of muscles and therefore movement of skeleton

Mechanical work

38

Function of catalase

Speed up chemical reactions

39

Not permanently changed in reaction

Enzymes

40

Specific in what they do

Enzymes

41

Example of a specific enzyme

Dehydrogenase only takes hydrogen out

42

What type of molecule is an enzyme __

Protein

43

Components of metabolic pathways

Substrate, product, intermediates

44

Substance being acted upon

Substrate

45

End molecule to what's produced

Product

46

Molecules that come in between the substrate and the product

Intermediates

47

Three types of metabolic pathways

Straight chain, branched chain, cycles

48

Name for temporary molecule where enzyme and substrate are bound together

Enz-substrate complex

49

On enzyme, place where they bind

Active site

50

Theory of how the enzymes work

Induced fit model

51

Steps of the induced fit model

1. Substrate binds to the active site
2. Enzyme then changes shape (induced fit)
3. Shape change then makes it easier for the reaction to proceed
4. Reaction is done. Enzyme releases its product and returns to normal shape
5. Active site available for More substrate

52

Energy needed for a reaction to occur; enzymes lower this

Energy of activation

53

Factors that affect speed of enzyme reaction

Substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, optimal pH, temperature, cofactors and coenzymes, denaturization

54

Higher the concentration the more reaction will occur

Substrate concentration

55

More enzymes make more reaction

Enzyme concentration

56

Optimal pH

PH of human is 7.35 to 7.45

57

Enzymes reaction occur best at __ of the organism

Body temperature

58

Inorganic ions needed for the active site of enzyme to work properly

Cofactors

59

Examples of cofactors

Cu, Fe, Zn

60

Non-protein organic molecule needed at the active site for enzyme to work properly

Coenzyme

61

Examples of coenzymes

NAD+, NADPH, FAD

62

Coenzymes often require __ to work

Vitamins

63

Caused by pH and temperature changes

Denaturation

64

Change of an enzyme shape such that it no longer works correctly (reversible and irreversible)

Denaturation

65

Forms of energy

Potential energy and kinetic energy

66

Types of enzyme inhibition

Competitive and noncompetitive

67

Components of competitive inhibition

Substrate inhibitor active site

68

In competitive inhibition, both __ and __ can fit in the __, but whoever gets there first __

Substrate and inhibitor
Active sight
Wins

69

What determines who gets in the active sight in competitive inhibition? (Either substrate or inhibitor?

Probability

70

Alcohol is the inhibitor of __

Antifreeze

71

All enzymes depend on their __ to function properly

Shape

72

Noncompetitive inhibitors and has a __

Allosteric site

73

Site other than active site where the inhibitor binds

Allosteric site

74

What happens in a non-competitive inhibition?

It causes a shape change in the active site which inhibits the substrate from binding

75

One product in pathway inhibits a previous reaction in pathway

Negative feedback

76

Example of negative feedback

If blood sugar gets to 101 it will produce insulin to lower it until it is back to 100

77

A>B>C>D
When there's enough D, it will __________, which will stop _________; which will cause enzyme to eventually ______, then ______

Completely inhibit enzyme1
Production of D
Be made again (for lack of D)
Then D will be made again

78

One of the products of the pathway makes the reaction go faster

Positive feedback pathway

79

Example of positive feedback pathway

During childbirth, oxytocin is produced for contractions, and the stretching of the the uterus creates more oxytocin

80

Competitive inhibition Pathway can be __

Reversible or irreversible

81

An example of an irreversible pathway

CO binds stronger than CO2 to red blood cells, can't get rid of it

82

Loss of electrons / H+

Oxidation

83

Gain of electron/ H+

Reduction

84

__ and __ usually go together

Oxidation and reduction