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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (20):
1

Epidemiology

The study of the distribution of health and dz in groups of people as well as the study of the factors influencing this distribution

2

What do descriptive studies do?

Observe and describe the health and factors influencing it in selected groups of people. Includes case reports, case series, and correlational studies

3

What are 3 properties commonly present in the description and evaluation of noncategorical data?

Distribution
Measure of central tendency
Variability

4

Mean

The arithmetic average of the distribution

5

Median

The value that equals the midpoint of the observations when arranged in order

6

Mode

The value of the distribution that occurs the most

7

Analytic studies

Allow inferences about causality using formal hypothesis testing

8

T-test

Evaluates the observed difference between calculated mean values of two study groups to determine statistical significance
T-tests are used with noncategorical, normally distributed or parametric data, including clinical measurements such as height, blood pressure, or cholesterol level

9

Chi square test

A simple and common method to determine whether difference in proportions between study groups are statistically significant.
It compares proportions rather than means

10

Biostatistics

The science of describing, analyzing, and interpreting biologic or health data collected in these studies using statistical methods

11

Sensitivity equation

TP/(TP + FN)

12

Sensitivity

Percent of pts with a positive test result who truly have the disease

13

Specificity formula

TN/(FP + TN)

14

Specificity

Percent of pts with a negative result who do not have disease

15

Prevalence formula

(TP + FN)/(TP + FP + FN + TN)

16

Prevalence

The proportion of individuals in a population who have the disease at a specific instant

17

Positive predictive value equation

TP/(TP + FP)

18

Positive predictive value

The probability that pts with a positive test truly have the disease

19

Negative predictive value equation

TN/(FN + TN)

20

Negative predictive value

The probability that pts with a negative test truly do not have the dz