Chapter 6 Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Chapter 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (22):

Know about Piaget’s first stage

Sensorimotor- birth to 2
Infant uses senses and motor function to understand the world

Ex: sucking reflex

elopment highlights that:
A) at birth, infants are active learners.
B) infants learn through adaptation.
C) infants' motor skills and senses are the conduits for learning.


Piaget STAGE 1

(Primary circular reactions) STAGE OF REFLEXES - lasts only a month includes senses as well as motor reflexes, the foundation of sensorimotor thought


Piaget STAGE 2

STAGE 2 (primary circular reactions):First acquired adaptations(stage of first habits): begins because reflexes adjust to whatever responses they elicit


Piaget STAGE 3

STAGE 3 (secondary circular reactions) {4 to 8 months} Making interesting sights last: infants attempt to produce exciting experiences, reakizing rattles make noise


Piaget STAGE 4

(secondary circular reactions) {8 months to a year} new adaptation and anticipation: babies may ask for help (pointing, gesturing, fussing) to accomplish what they wantj


Piaget STAGE 5

STAGE 5 (Tertiary Circular Reactions) {ages 12-18 months} new means through active experimentation: builds on the accomplishments of stage four, now goal-directed and purposeful activities become more expensive


Piaget STAGE 6

STAGE 6 (Tertiary Circular Reactions) {18-24 months} mental combinations: intellectual experimentation via imagination that can supersede the active experimentation of stage five


Understand object permanence and how it works

understanding that objects are things out there that you can perceive and manipulate and exist even when you can't see them
Advanced cameras and programed computers can measure it

Ex: peek a boo


What theory compares human cognition to a computer?

Information-processing theory: compares human thinking processes by analogy, to computer analysis of data including sensory input connections, stored memories and output



Affordance: an opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person place or object in the environment.

Actions made possible



A single word that is used to express a complete meaningful thought (Ex: Dada, Dada?)


Can infants create memories

Yes but they may not be able to put them in words (ribbon and balloon experiment)
Memories are particularly evident if
Motivation and emotion are high
Retrieval is strengthened by reminders and repetition


What effect does a reminder session have on infant memory?

A reminder session: is a perceptual experience that helps a person recollect and idea, thing or an experience. It allows processing time to retrieve the memory which is more powerful with repeated reminders


3 theories of language development

1.Infants need to be taught
2.Social impulses foster infant language: (called social pragmatic
3.: Infants teach themselves


Theory 1

Theory One: Infants need to be taught- Tes essential idea was that all learning is acquired, step-by-step through association and reinforcement



Theory 2

Theory Two: Social impulses foster infant language: (called social pragmatic) it arises from the socio cultural reason for language:communication
Infants communication because humans are social beings who depend on each other for survival and joy


Theory 3

Theory Three: Infants teach themselves: language learning is genetically programmed to being at a certain age



What are Piaget’s 6 stages of cognitive development

1. Stage of reflexes
2. First acquired adaptations or habits
3.attenpts to make interesting things last
4. New adaptation and anticipation
5. New means through active exploration
6. Mental combinations; intellectual experimentation via imagination


How long do each of Piaget’s stages last

1. Birth-1 month
2. 1-4 months
3. 4-8 months
4. 8-12 months
5. 12-18 months
6. 18-24 months


Primary circular reactions

2 stages of sensorimotor intelligence involving the infants body

Ex: sucking thumb is a reflex, that will soon become an adaptation



Secondary circular reactions

Interaction between baby and something else; mirror neurons begin to function


Tertiary circular reactions

Involves active exploration and experimentation. Exploring new activities and various responses as a way of learning