Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (23):
Explain the differences in how constructivists and nativists view sensation and perception.
Constructivists - nurture - perceptions of the world are constructed over time through learning. Interaction with the environment is key.
Nativists - nature - Perception is not created by interpreting external input but rather innate capabilities are the driving force in perceptual development. Infants come with sensory capabilities - they do not need to experience to learn how to interpret.
Explain the ecological theory of perception.
We do not need to construct how we might interact with an object. Rather the object features reveal to us and we perceive how to use it. Perception drives action. All the information needed to interpret the object is available there with the object.
Describe the four main methods used to study infant perception.
Habituation - same stimulus is repeatedly given until the infant grows bored with it and looks away.
Preferential looking - two stimuli are shown to the infant at the same time to determine which one they prefer.
Evoked potentials - electrical activity in different parts of the brain is measured while the infant watches, listens to or is otherwise exposed to stimulation.
Operant conditioning - infants conditioned to respond to stimuli; once response is established, researchers can look at conditions under which the behavior will or will not continue.
What is the key to doing research on infant perception?
Find some behavior that the infant can control and use that as the entry into what an infant can perceive.
Describe the change in form perception that appears to happen around 2 months.
The infant no longer focuses on external boundaries and begin looking at the interior features. Trying to determine where one object begins and ends.
What are 3 properties of patterns that capture the young infant's attention?
1. Light dark transition. Very responsive to sharp deliniation between light and dark.
2. Interested in dynamic displays of movement. Will track a moving target.
3. Attracted to patterns that are moderately complex and not too simple. Prefer a clear pattern.
Describe the visual cliff paradigm.
The visual cliff is used to test a child's depth perception. Study determined that most children would crawl across the floor that did not appear to drop off. Avoidance of cliffs appears to be learned through crawling.
Describe the 3 sensitive periods when experience most affects the visual system.
Developmental changes in vision occur with exposure to normal visual input. Changes will not occur without input.
Sensitive period for damage where abnormal or absent visual input is likely to lead to permanent deficits in some aspect of vision.
Sensitive period for recovery. Period when the visual system has the potential to recover from damage.
Describe 3 phases of exploratory behavior that occur as infants create the sensory environments that meet their needs and contribute to their development.
Birth - 4 months - infants explore immediate surroundings especially caregivers; learn about objects by mouthing them and watching them move.
5-7 months - once ability to grasp in place, babies pay more attention to objects and explore with eyes as well as hands.
8-9 months - after crawling begins, exploration is extended to the larger environment
Apply the workings of the cephalocaudal and proximodistal principles to development of motor development.
Cephalocaudal - neurons between brain and muscles acquire myelin sheaths in head to tail manner. Infants lift head before controlling the trunk. Sit before walking.
Proximodistal - activities involving the trunk are mastered before activities involving arms and legs. Arms and legs activities are mastered before hands and feet. Infant rolls before sitting up before walking.
Describe typical changes in vision that can be expected with aging and discuss how these changes may affect daily activities.
Reading affected by presbyopia, difficulty reading in low light. Night driving problems. Peripheral vision issues.
Which two groups of drivers have more accidents?
Young drivers between 16-24 and elderly drivers 70+
Describe typical changes in hearing that can be expected with aging and discuss how these changes may affect daily activities.
Loss of sensitivity to high frequency or high pitched sounds (presbycusis)
Can become more socially isolated and have lower levels of emotional well-being.
Which taste has little loss of acuity across the lifespan?
People never lose their "sweet" tooth.
What features of an object offer us and how it may be used.
Moving a body in a repetitive way before a new skill emerges.
Cross modal perception
Recognizing through one sense an object familiar through another.
Deliberately concentrating on one thing while ignoring something else.
Sensory receptors neurons detect information and transmit to the brain
The interpretation of sensory input, recognizing what you see, interpreting.
Retinal cell damage resulting in loss of central vision
Hereditary disorder causing loss of peripheral vision