Chapter 6 & Biotechnology Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 & Biotechnology Review Deck (29):
1

Aneuploidy

Has altered genomes- either lack chromosomes or have a extra one

2

Biotechnology

Use of living organisms to create products or to facilitate the production of products

3

Clone

Is merely an exact genetic duplicate of a molecule, cell, or complete organism

4

Crossing over

Exchange of segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis

5

Enucleated

No nucleus in embryo

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Euploidy

Is the condition of having a chromosome number that is an exact multiple of a haploid number

7

Genome

Complete haploid set of its chromosomes

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Multipotent

Committed to a particular type of tissue but not fully specialized

9

Mutagen

Anything that causes a mutation to occur

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Non disjunction

Failing to separate during meiosis

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Parthenogenesis

Unfertilized egg

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Pluripotent

Gives rise to many but no all cell types

13

Translocation

Exchange of two non homologous chromosomes

14

Totipotent

Give rise to any type of cell body

15

Germ mutation

Is a mutation in a cell that forms gametes

16

Somatic mutation

A mutation that occurs in the non gamete, or body, cells of the organism

17

Down’s syndrome

A male or female with a trisomy of the twenty- first chromosome

18

Turners syndrome

A female that is lacking a second sex- chromosome chromosome

19

Klinefelters syndrome

A male (XXY) that appears normal but is infertile

20

Trisomy X

Females that are called “Super females” having a tendency toward male characteristics

21

Cru du chat

Results from the deletion of part of the fifth chromosome

22

Two basic type of genetic changes

1. Chromosomal changes- involve either the number of chromosome
or the arrangement of genes on a chromosome
2. Gene mutations- which change the sequence of bases in a gene

23

Gene mutations mechanisms

Substitution
Nucleotide addition
Deletion

24

Dominion mandate

Command from god to man

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Selective breeding

Process of of crossing animals or animals or plants to produce desirable traits

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Natural cloning

Asexually

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Artificial cloning

Things that do not normally produce asexually

28

First mammal to be cloned

A sheep named dolly or twins

29

What other animals have been cloned after dolly

H