Chapter 6 and 7: Bones And Skeletal Tissue Flashcards Preview

Advanced Anatomy & Physiology > Chapter 6 and 7: Bones And Skeletal Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 and 7: Bones And Skeletal Tissue Deck (36):
1

What 3 things do the skeletal system contain?

1. Bones
2. Cartilage
3. Joints

2

What are the 3 types of cartilage in the bone?

1. Hyaline
2. Elastic
3. Fiberocartilage

3

What are the functions of the bone?

1. Support
2. Protection
3. Movement
4. Mineral and growth factor storage
5. Blood cell formation
6. Triglyceride (fat) storage
7. Hormone production

4

Support

For body and soft organs

5

Protection

Protect brain, spinal cord, and vital organs

6

Movement

Levers for muscle action

7

Mineral and growth factor storage

Calcium and phosphorus, and growth factors reservoir

8

Blood cell formation

Hematopoiesis occurs in red marrow cavities of certain bones

9

Triglyceride (fat) storage

Fat, used for an energy source, is stored in bone cavities

10

Hormone production

Osteocalcin secreted by bones helps to regulate insulin secretion, glucose levels, and metabolism

11

What are the 4 major cells of the bone tissue?

1. Osteogenic cells
2. Osteoblasts
3. Osteocytes
4. Osteoclasts

12

Osteogenic cells

- Active stem cells
- Differentiate into osteoblasts or other bone cells (stimulated)
- Some stay the same

13

Osteoblasts

Function: Bone-forming cells that secrete osteoid
- Actively mitotic

14

Osteoid

Unmineralized bone matrix

15

Osteocytes

- Mature bone cells that don't divide (in lacunae)
- Maintain bone matrix and stress/ strain sensors
- Communicate info to osteoblasts and osteoclasts for bone remodeling

16

Osteoclasts

- Giant, multinucleate
- Function: breaking down of bone
- Increase surface area for enzyme degradation of bone (from ruffled borders of cells)

17

Compact Bone

Dense outer layer on every bone that appears smooth and solid

18

Spongy Bone

Made up of a honeycomb of small, needle-like or flat pieces of bone
- Appears poorly organized but is organized along lines of stress to help with bone resistance to stress
- Trabeculae

19

Trabeculae

Needle-like or flat pieces of bone
- like cables on a suspension bridge, confer strength to bone
(No osteons are present)

20

What does compact bone consist of?

- Osteon (Haversian system)
- Canals and canaliculi
- Interstitial and circumferential lamellae

21

Osteon (Haversian system)

- the structural unit of compact bone
- consists of an elongated cylinder that runs parallel to long axis of bone
- Osteon cylinder consists of several rings of bone matrix

22

Lamellae

Rings of bone matrix

23

Canals and canaliculi

- Central (Haversian) canal runs through ore of osteon (blood vessels and nerve fibers)
- Lacunae
- Canaliculi
(Both allow communication)

24

Lacunae

Small cavities that contain osteocytes

25

Canaliculi

Hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and to central canal

26

Interstitial and circumferential lamellae

Lamellae that are not part of osteon
- Some fill gaps others are remnants of osteon scut by bone remodeling

27

Suture

A seamlike immovable junction between 2 bones

28

Meatus

Tubelike opening or channel

29

Foramen

Round hole for vessels and nerves

30

Condyle

Rounded bump; usually fits into a depression on another bone to form a joint

31

Spine

Sharp, pointed process

32

Body

The main or central portion of a bone

33

Epicondyle

Bump near a condyle; often gives the appearance of a "bump" on a bump

34

Head

Distinct epiphysis on a long bone, separated from the shaft by a narrowed portion (or neck)

35

Neck

A narrowed portion, usually at the base of a head

36

Tuberosity

Oblong, raised bump