Chapter 6 cross country flight planning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 cross country flight planning Deck (211):

3 common ways to navigate

A. Pilotage ( reference of landmarks)
B. Dead Reckoning ( computing direction and distance from a known position)
C. Radio Navigation ( by use of radio aids)


Charts available for VFR nagivation

A. Sectional Charts
B. VFR terminal Area Charts
C. VFR flyway planning Charts


Isogonic line

Broken magenta lines, connect equal magnetic variation. Show amount and direction of magnetic variation


Magnetic variation

Variation is the angle between true north and magnetic north. Expressed as east variation or west variation depending upon whether magnetic North (MN) is to the east or west of the true north


Convert true direction to a magnetic direction

East is least (subtract)
West is Best (add)



Run parallel to the equator (east and west)



Un perpendicular to the equator (north and south)


Magnetic deviation

The electrical components fucking up the magnetic compass


Types of navigational aids




VHF radio stations that project radials in all directions (360) from the station. Each radials denoted by its outbound magnetic direction. Almost all VOR will be VORTACs- provides standard bearing infor of a VOR plus distance infor to pilots of airplanes which have distance measuring equipments


What frequency range do VORs operate

VHF band between 108 and 117.95 MHz. immediately below aviation communication frequencies


What is VOR radial

Line of magnetic bearing extending from an omnidirectional range (VOR). Projects 380 radials from the station. Also identified ‘from’ the station. 360 will always be located north of the station


VOR NAVAIDS classified

Terminal, low, high


Limitations to VOR reception distances

VORS are subject to line-of-sight restrictions and the range varies proportionally to the alt of the receiving equipment


Different methods for checking the accuracy of VOR receiver equipment j

A. VOT check - plus or minus 4 degree
B. Ground checkpoint -
C. Airborne checkpoint
D. Dual VOR check
E. Selected radial over a know ground point



Distance measuring equipment (airborne and ground) used to measure, in NM, slant range distance of an aircraft from the DME navigational aid. Aircraft equiped with it are provided with distance and ground speed info when receiving VORTAC



Global Positioning System is a satellite radio based navigation system that broadcast a signal used by receivers to determine a precise position anywhere in the world. Receiver tracks multiple satellites and determines a pseudo-range measurements that is then used to determine the users location


3 functional elements of GPS

Space element - consists of 30 satellites
Control element - consists of a network of ground based GPS monitoring and control stations that ensure the accuracy of satellite positions and their clocks
User element - consists of antennas and receiver - processors onboard aircraft that provide positioning, velocity, and precise timing to the user


Different types of GPS receiver available for use

GPS receivers used fro VFR naviagtion vary from fully integrated IFR/VFR installations used to support VFR operations to handheld devices


Purpose of RAIM

Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) is self monitoring function performed by a GPS receiver to ensure that adequate GPS signals are being received from the satellites at all times. GPS will alert pilot if there is no integrity of the GPS


Where can pilot obtain RAIM availability info

Using manufacturer supplied RAIM prediction tool or SAPT on FAA website


If RAIM capability is lost in flight, can you continue using GPS for nav

Without RAIM have no reassurance of accuracy


Preflight checks for GPS equipment

A. Verify that GPS equipment is properly installed and certified fro the planned operation
B. Verify that the databases (nav, terrain, obstacles) have not expired
C. Review GPS NOTAM/RAIM info related to the planned route of flight
D. Review operational status of ground - based NAVIADS and related equipment , appropriate to route of flight
E. Determine that GPS receiver operation manual or plane flight manual supplement is onboard and available for use


Determine what type of operation a GPS receiver is approved for

Reference POH/AFM and supplements to determine limitations and operating procedures for the particular GPS equipment installed


FSS briefer provide GPS notams

No must request GPS/WAAS NOTAMS



Wide area augmentation System is a ground and satellite intregrated navigational error correction system that provides accuracy enhancements to signals received from the Global Positioning System. Provides extremely accurate lateral and vertical naviagtion signals to aircraft equiped


Limitations of GPS

A. RAIM capability - many VFR receivers and all hand - held units have no RAIM alerting capability
B. Database currency - must always update for IFR requirements
C. Antenna Location - location matter of convenience that’s performance.


VFR waypoint

Provide pilots with supplementary tool to assist with position awareness while navigation visually in aircraft equipped with area navigation receivers. Provide navigational aids for pilots unfamiliar with an area. 5 letter identifier beginning with VP and retrievable from navigation databases, only used when operating under VFR


After takeoff, attempt to activate VFR flight plan but are unable to contact FSS. What will happen to flight plan

Be held by FSS until 1 hour after the proposed departure time and then is cancelled


If disoriented or lost on cross country flight

- straighten up and fly right. Fly a specific heading in a direction you believe to correct read book page 6-15


Low on fuel; weather deteriorating; inadequate experience; darkness imminent; and/or equipment malfunctioning



If cannot locate position

4 c’s
-Climb - higher alt allows better communication capability as well as better visual range for identification of landmarks
-Communicate - use the system. Use 121.5 MHz
-Confess- once communications are established, let them know the problem
-Comply - follow instructions


Most common type of communication radio equipment, and how Many channels are available

Most common type is VHF, operates on frequencies between 118.0 and 136.97 MHz and is classified as 720 or 760 depending on number of channels it can accommodate. 720 and 760 uses .025 spacing with 720 having frequency range up to 135.975 and the 760 going up to 136.975


Universal VHF ‘emergency’

121.5 MHz. This frequency guarded by military towers, most civil towers, FSS and radar facilities


Frequencies used for ground control

121.6 to 121.9 MHz



Common Traffic Advisory Frequency, designated for purpose of carrying out airport advisory practices while operating to or from an airport without an operating control tower. May be UNICOM, MULTICOM, FSS or TOWER frequency



Nongovernmental communication facility which provide airport info at certain airports. Use 122.7, 122.725,, 122,8, 122,975, 123.0, 123.05 and 123.075. And with control tower FSS 122.950



Automatic terminal info service, continous broadcast of recorded no control info in selected high activity terminal areas. Improve controller effectiveness and relieve frequency congestion by automating the competitive transmission of essential but routine info


Airport without control tower of FSS or UNICOM

Where there is no tower, use multicom frequency 122.9 for self announce procedures. MULTICOM is mobile service not open to public use



Remote communication outlet, in unmanned communications facility remotely controlled by ATC personnel, provides ground to ground communications between ATC and pilots at satellite airports. IFR cancellation or departure/landing times, departure authorization. Used for advisory whenever plane is below coverage of primary air/ground frequency


How to determine what frequency is appropriate for activating his/her VFR flight plan once airborne

A. Ask FSS briefer during preflight weather briefing
B. Consult communication section under flight service for airport of departure in chart supplement


Heavy - lined box surrounding NAVAID frequency

Indicates FSS frequencies 121.5, 122.2, 243, 255.4 are available and if frequency is on top of the box meaning they are addition to FSS


Thin lined blue box surrounding NAVAID frequency

Without frequencies on top indicates that there are no standard FSS frequencies available. ‘No voice’ symbol


Why would frequency be on top of thin lined blue box

Best frequencies to use in the immediate vicinity of NAVAID site, and ensure reception by the controlling FSS at low alts without terrain interference. Followed by R indicating FSS only receives on that frequency. Pilot will listen for response over NAVAID


Determine HIWAS from sectional

NAVIADS that have hiwas depicted with ‘H’ in upper right corner of identification box


Inflight emergency, what authority and responsibilites does he/she have

A. PIC is directly responsible for and is final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft
B. In an inflight emergency requiring immediate action, PIC may deviate from any rule in Part 91 to extent required to meet that emergency
C. Each PIC who deviates from Part 91 shall, upon request, send a written report of that deviation


Restrictions of alcohol

A. Within 8 hrs after consumption of any alcoholic beverage
B. While under the influence
C. While using any drug that affects persons safety
D. While having an alcohol concentration of .04 or more


Portable electronics on plane

Under IFR may not allow operation of electronic devices


Objects dropped from aircraft

May not drop from aircraft in flight that creates a hazard to person or property. But does not prohibit


Preflight action required in local area

Familiarize with info concerning flight, runway lengths and take off and landing distance


Preflight action away from local area

Weather reports and forecast
Known ATC traffic delays
Runaway lengths at airports of intended use
Alternatives available if planned flight cannot be completed
Fuel requirements


Seatbelt use

Each person onboard must have safety belt and harness on taxi, takeoff and landing. PIC must ensure everyone has seatbelt on


Crew members seatbelt

Harness and belt on taxi, takeoff, landing. Belt only airborne


Close proximity in formation flight

A. May operate to another plane to create collision hazard
B. In formation only in arrangement with each PIC
C. May no have passengers for hire


Right of way by aircraft

Refueling aircraft has right of way over anyone plane
And aircraft in distress over that



Aircraft on right has right of way


Approach head on

Both aircraft shall alter course to right



Plane being overtaken has right of way; pilot overtaking aircraft shall alter course to the right


Right of way rules when two or more aircraft are approaching airport for landing

On final or landing have right of way over plane in flight or on runway but don’t take advantage and force someone off runway who just landed and are attempting to taxi off. Two or more approaching, the lowest alt has right of way but cannot cut in front of plane on final to land


Max airspeed below 10000’



Min safe alt over congested area

Except for take off and landing- city, town, settlement or over open air assembly of persons, below alt of 1000’ above highest obstacle and within 2000’ horizontal radius


Min safe alt other than congested area

No lower than 500’ AGL expect over open water. In water no closer than 500’ of person, vessel


Min safe alt

Alt allowing, if power unit fails, an emergency landing without undue hazard to person or property


Min safe alt over national parks

Min alt of 2000’ AGL


Flying below 18000’ MSL alt setting???

If under 31.00 hg follow ATC alt of within 100 NM of airport


Altimeter not available before flight

Elevation of departure airport


When may deviate from ATC clearance

A. Amended clearance has been obtained
B. Emergency exit
C. Response to traffic or collision avoidance system resolution advisory


Action required if deviated from ATC and priority is given

A. If deviate from ATC because of collision avoidance must notify ATC asap
B. Given priority by ATC because of emergency just report within 48 hours to manager of ATC facility if requested


Steady green

On ground - cleared for takeoff
In air - cleared to land


Flashing green

On ground - cleared to taxi
In air - return for landing


Steady red

On ground - stop
In air - yield, continue circling


Flashing red

On ground - taxi clear of runway
In air - unsafe, do not land


Flashing white

On groun - return to start
In air - nothing


Alternate red/green

On ground - exercise extreme caution
In air - exercise extreme caution


Radio fails under VFR while operating in towered controlled airport, what conditions must be met before landing

A. Weather conditions must be at or above VFR min
B. Visual contact with the tower is maintained
C. Clearance to land is received


Rules traffic pattern operations at non towered airports within class E or G

Approaching to land, make all turns to the left unless airport displays otherwise
Departing comply with traffic patterns established for airport


In class D, procedure used when approaching to land on runway with VASI

Maintain alt at or above glide slope until lower alt is necessary for safe landing


fuel requirement for VFR flight at night

Enough fuel to fly to the first point of intended landing and assuming normal cruising speed, fly after at least 45 min


Fuel VFR requirement for day

Fly to first point of intended landing with normal cruising speed, fly after for 30 min


Level cruising flight at alt more than 3000’ above surface, rules concerning specific alt. Flown

Above 3000’ but less that not 18000’ magnetic course 0 to 179 degrees, fly at odd thousand foot MSL plus 500’. When magnetic course of 180 to 359 degree, fly at even thousand foot MSL plus 500’



Emergency Locator Transmitter - radio transmitter attached to aircraft structure, operates from its own power source on 121.5, 243.0 MHz and 406 MHz. Aids in locating downed aircraft by radiating a downward - sweeping audio tone, 2-4 times a second. Function without human action after accident. Tested during first 5 min after any hour


ELT required on all aircraft

No one may operate plane unless there is a attached to plane an automatic - type ELT and in operable condition.
Engaged in design and testing
New aircraft arriving for delivery
Agriculture operations


Battery replaced or recharged for ELT

A. Transmitter been used for more than 1 cumulative hour
B. 50% of useful life has expired


Supplemental oxygen on board

Alt above 12,500 MSL up to and including 14000 MSL, part of flight more than 30 min, min flight crew must have and use supplemental oxygen.
Alt above 14000 MSL, for the entire time at those alt. Flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen
At cabin pressure alt above 15000 MSL, each occupant provided with oxygen


Aerobatic flight of aircraft not permitted

Over congested
Over open air assembly of persons
Lateral boundaries of surface areas of Class B, class C, D or E
4 NM center line of federal airway
Below an alt of 1500’ above surface
Flight visibility is less than 3 SM


Aerobatic flight

Intentional maneuver involving an abrupt change in planes attitude, or acceleration


Parachutes required on board

Bank angle of 60 degree
Nose up or down attitude of 30 degree
Does not apply for tests for pilot certification
And spins and other flight maneuvers


Class A

18000MSL up to and including FL600, airspace overlying waters within 12 NM of the coast. Designated international airspace beyond 12 NM of the coast, within domestic radio navigation signal or ATC


VFR flight in Class A

No, unless otherwise authorized by ATC and under instrument flight rules


Min pilot certification for operation in class A

Private certification with instrument rating


Min equipment for Class A

2 way radio communication with ATC on frequency
Mode C alt encoding transponder
Equiped with instrument and equipment required for IFR operation


Class B

Surface to 10000’MSL (busiest airports)


MIn pilot certification to operate within Class B

PIC holds private pilot cert
PIC holds recreational and met CFR 61.101
PIC sport certification and met CFR 81.325
Student pilot met requirements 61.94 or 61.95


Min equipment for Class B

2 way radio comm
Mode C
If IFR, VOR or TAC receiver and RNAV system


Basic requirements for Class B

Must obtain ATC clearance


Weather condition for VFR in Class B

Clear of clouds with at least 3SM visibility


Class B depicted on charts

Solid shaded blue line


ATC services provided in Class B

VFR pilots provided sequencing and separation from planes


Max speed in Class B under 10000’MSL

250 Knots


Max speed in Class C or D or within 4 NM of airport

200 Knots


Class C

Surface to 4000’MSL, operational control tower and certain number of IFR operations


Dimensions of Class C

5 NM radius core surface extends from the surface to 4000’ MSL, 10 NM radius shelf area extends from 1200’ to 4000’ MSL


Min pilot certification for Class C

Student pilot certificate


Min equipment to operate in Class C

2 way radio comm
Automatic pressure alt reporting equipment with Mode C capability


Basic requirements for Class C

Each person must establish 2 way comm with ATC providing air traffic services prior to enetering and maintain communication


Radio established meaning Class C

ATC has said your call sign back and meaning are allowed to enter
If call sign not repeated radio comm have not been established and may not enter airspace


Departing satellite airport w/out operative control tower located within class C & D, requirements

Each person must establish and maintain 2 way comm with ATC facilities have jurisdiction over C asap


Min weather condition for VFR in class C

3 SM visibility and cloud clearance 500’ below, 1000’ above and 2000’ horizontal clouds


Class C depicted on charts

Solid magenta line


ATC services in Class C

Sequenced to primary airport
Provided class C services within airspace and outer area
Basic radar services beyond the outer area on workload permitting basis


Various types of terminal radar services available for VFR

Basic radar service
Class C
Class B


Basic radar service

Safety alerts, traffic advisories, limited radar vectoring and sequencing at locations where procedures have been established


TRSA service

Radar sequencing and separation for VFR


Class C service

Addition to basic radar, separation between IFR and VFR


Class B service

Addition to basic radar, separation between IFR, VFR, and/or weight and sequencing of VFR arrivals


Mode C required

At or above 10000’ MSL
Within 30 miles of class B, below 10000 MSL
Within and above all Class C, up to 10000’MSL
Within 10 Miles of designated airports except outside of class D airspace and below 1200’ AGL


Max speed in Class C

At or below 2500’ AGL within 4 NM of primary airport no more than 200 Knots


Class D

Extends upward from surface to 2500’ MSL


Requirements for Class D

Establish 2 way comm with ATC providing air traffic services prior to entering and thereafter maintaining comm


ATC clearance required if flight operations are conducted through Class E area arrival extension

Class E may be extension of Class B, C, D and E. Begins at surface and extend up to overlying controlled airspace. Extension provide controlled airspace to contain standard instrument approach procedures without imposing a comm requirement on pilots operating under VFR. Surface area arrival extensions become part of surface area and are in effect during the same times as surface area


Min weather conditions required for VFR in Class D

3 SM visibility
Cloud clearance 500’ below, 1000’ above, and 2000’ horizontal


Class D depicted on charts

Blue segmented lines


Air traffic control in Class D

No separation services to VFR. Pilot responsible. controller will proved safety alerts and sequencing on workload permitting


Max speed in Class D

At or below 2500’ AGL within 4 NM of airport more than 200 Knots


Class D control tower closes

Tower is closed, its Class E rules down to 700’ AGL and Class G to surface


Class E

ATC service provided to IFR and VFR with airspace classification


Operating rules and pilot/equipment requirements for Class E

A. Min pilot cert - student pilot
B. No specific equipment
C. No specific for arrival or thru flight


Class E transition areas

Extend upward from either 700’AGL (magenta) or 1200’AGL (blue). Help separate arriving and departing IFR from VFR


Comm in Class E

Comm must be established with ATC and two way communication must be established and maintained. Established prior to 4 NM up and including 2500’ AGL


Class E depicted on chart

Magenta segmented line


Class G

Uncontrolled and has not been designated as any other class. ATC has no authority or responsibility to control traffic


Comm with a tower located within class G

Comm must be established with ATC prior to entering and maintained. prior to 4 NM up to and including 2500’ AGL


Vertical limits of Class G

Begins at surface and continues put overlying controlled space, not exceed 14500 MSL


Min weather requirements in Class G and below 1200’ AGL

When visibility is less than 3 SM but not less than 1 SM during night, operated clear of clouds within 1.5 of runway


Basic VFR weather min required

1000’ ceiling and 3 miles visibility


Special VFR

Special VFR clearance must be obtained if cannot fly VFR, prior to entering class B, Class C, D, E provided flight can remain clear of clouds and 1 SM ground visibility


Special VFR availablitly

Pilots may request and be given clearance to enter, leave or operate within class D & E and some B and C traffic permitting.


Contact to obtain special VFR

Control tower, request to tower. Class E from nearest tower, FSS or center


Special VFR at night

Not allowed unless IFR rated


Prohibited area

Defined dimensions identified by area on surface of earth, where flight is prohibited
Associated with security and national welfare


Restricted Area

Identified by area of surface of earth within flight is subject to restrictions. Often hazards to plane like gun fire, aerial gunnery


Enter restricted or prohibited areas

May not operate within those areas, unless have permission of the using or control agency. Usually no operation in prohibited and prior permission for restriced


Warning area

Defined dimensions extending from 3 NM outward from coast containing activity that may be hazardous. Is to warn pilots



Military operating area, separating military training activities from IFR traffic. VFR exercise extreme caution. Active/Inactive. Contact FSS within 100 Miles of area to obtain times. Prior to entering contact controlling agency


Alert Area

Area contain high volume pilot training. On alert when flyging thru these areas and follow regulations


Controlled firing areas

Contain activities hazardous to non participating planes. Firing is suspended immediately when plane is spotted. Not charted


National Security Area

Areas where requirements for increased security and safety of ground facilities. Pilots voluntary avoid. Can be temporarily prohibited for increase security


Special Flight Rules Area

SFRA, special federal aviation regulations apply. Like Washington DC. Regulations and operations found in CFR part 93 and chart legend


Special use airspace be found

Charted on IFR or visual charts


VFR flyaways, VFR corridors, Class B transition routes

Depicted on reverse side of VFR terminal area charts aka class b airspace charts


Military training routes

Use by military for low alt, high speed training. Above 1500’AGL (3 digits) flown max extent, under IFR. Routes 1500’AGL and below (4 digits) flown under VFR.



Terminal radar service area, airspace surrounding designated airports within ATC provides radar vectoring, sequencing, and separation on full time basis for IFR and participating VFR. Urged not mandatory


What class is TRSA

Does not fit in any class. Airports within trsa become class D remaining portion trsa overlies other contorted space, normally class E


TRSAs depicted

On VFR sectional and terminal charts with solid black line and alt segments. Class D portion with blue segmented line



Air defense identification zone, airspace over land or water, extending upward from surface
Domestic - located within US along international boundary
Coastal - over coastal waters
Distant early warning ident Zone - over coastal waters of Alaska
Land based ADIZ - over US merto areas


Requirements prior to operations into, within or across ADZ

Flight plan filed
Transponder - equiped with operable beacon Mode C and turned on and assigned ATC code
Position reports - for IFR, normal positioning reporting


Immediate notification to NTSB required

Serious incidents:
Flight control system malfunction
Crewmember unable to perform normal duties
Inflight fire
Aircraft collision inflight
Property damage greater than 25k
Overdue aircraft
Release of all portion of prop blade from plane
Complete loss of info, from more than 50% of EFIS display


Aircraft incident

Occurrence other than an accident associated with operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect safety of operation


Aircraft accident

Occurrence associated with the operation of plane which takes place between the time any person boards the plane with intention of flight and all that have disembarked. Person suffers death or serious injury, aircraft receives substantial damage


Serious injury

Requires hospitalization for more than 48 hrs commencing within 7 days from the date of injury
Broken bones
Severe hemorrhage, nerve, muscle or tendon damage
Involving internal organ
2-3 degree burn more than 5% body


Substantial damage

Damage of failure adversely affects structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of plane and require major repair. Engine failure need replacement, dented skin and etc


Notification to NTSB be necessary for any accident even if no injuries

All depends on the definition of accident


Where are accident or incident reports filed

With field office of the board nearest accident or incident. National Transportation Safety Board field offices are listed in US govt pages of telephone directories


After accident or incident , how soon must report be filed to NTSB

Within 10 days of accident
When, after 7 days, an overdue aircraft is still missing


Can FAA use reports submitted to NASA for enforcement reasons

FAA will not use NASA under the Aviation Safety reporting program in any enforcement action except info concerning accidents or criminal offenses which are wholly excluded from the program. By submitting report within 10 days pilot is not protected from FAA finding violation of regulation, but providing some immunity from civil penalty



Visual approach slope indicator, system of lights provide visual descent guidance info during the approach to runway.
Red over red - below glide path
Red over white - on glide path
White over white - above glide path



Precision approach path indicator, use lights similar to VASI. Single row. 5 miles day and 20 miles night
4 white - high
3 white - slightly high
2 white - on glide path
1 white - slightly low
4 red - low


Airport rotating beacon during hours of daylight

Class B, C, D, E - indicate ground visibility less than 3 miles and/or ceiling is less than 1000’


Mandatory instruction sign

Red background/white inscription; denotes an entrance to a runway, a critical area, or prohibited area


Location sign

black background/yellow inscription yellow border; no arrows; identify taxiway or runway location, boundary of runway, or ILS critical area


Direction sign

Yellow background/black inscription; identifies designation of intersection taxiway leading out of an intersection that a pilot would expect to turn onto or hold short of


Destination sign

Yellow background/black inscription and also contain arrows; provides info on locating runways, terminals, cargo areas, and civil aviation


Info sign

Yellow background/black inscription; used to provide pilot with info on areas that cant be seen from control tower, applicable radio frequencies, and noise abatement procedures


Runway distance remaining sign

Black background/white numeral inscription; indicates distance of the remaining runway in thousands of feet


What color are runway markings and taxiway markings

Runways are white
Markings for taxiway. Not intended for use by aircraft, and holding positions are yellow


Methods pilot may use to determine proper runway

Listening to UNICOM and weather services
Wind direction socket
Traffic patterns
Landing strip


Standard direction of turns when approaching an uncontrolled airport for landing

All turns must be made to the left unless traffic pattern indicates the turns to the right


Standard alt traffic pattern alt

1000’AGL is recommended. Usually 600’ to 1500’


Recommended entry and departure procedures used at airports without operating control tower

Enter traffic patten in level flight, abeam midpoint of runway at pattern alt. Departing traffic pattern, continue straight out, exit with 45 degree beyond departure end of runway after reaching pattern alt


Traffic pattern alt located

Chart supplement US


What is ARTCC and what useful service can it provide to VFR

Air route traffic control center, facility established to provide air traffic control service primarily to aircraft operating on IFR flight plans within controlled airspace and principally during en route phase. Air route surveillance radar allows capability to detect and display aircrafts positon while en route. Work loaded permit, certain advisory are provided for VFR. Frequencies from FSS or chart supplement


Transponder codes

1200 - VFR operations
7500 - Hijack
7600 - Communication failure
7700 - emergency


Initial Contact with operating control tower

Maintain two way comm while operating in Class B, C, D unless told other wise. Initial call up 15 miles from airport


Comm procedures recommended when departing class D area

Remain on tower frequency for purpose of receiving traffic info. Reducing tower congestion, no need to request permission to leave tower frequency once outside Class B, C, D


Standard to Zulu time

EST - +5
CST - +6
MST - +7
PST - +8
Daylight saving time subtract 1 hr from above


Radio facilites in order

arriving - ATIS, approach, control wotwer, ground
departing - ATIS, clearance delivery, ground control, control tower, depature control



Notice to airmen - time critical aeronautical info for temp or not know in advance to be published . NOTAMS can affect a pilots decision to make flight. includes runway closure, changes in status of nav aids, ILS and other info



info that requires wide dissemination via telecommunciation and pertains to en route nav aids, civil public use airports listed in AFD, facilities, services, and procedures



flight info that is regulatory in nature, changes to IFR charts, procedures, and airspace usage



issued by flight service to highlight or point out another NOTAM, such as FDC NOTAM. use for cross referencing important info



issued when special activity airspace will be active outside the published times



pertain to military nav aids/airports that are part of NAS



temp flight restrictions issued via NOTAMS, restrict plane from flying over certain areas on a temp basis, to protect person or property in air or ground. special event hazard, general warning


NOtAM info obtained



VFR required to be filed

not requried , but strongly recommended filed with FAA FSS to receive search and rescue



defense vfr, requried to file for security purposes. because flights into coastal or domestic ADIZ


Does tower automatically close your flight plan

No not for VFR. Pilot is responsible to ensure plan is canceled. Close on FSS or ask ATC


If behind schedule on filed flight

Report or cancel flight plan within 30 min or search and rescue is started


Wake turbulence

Passage of aircraft thru atmosphere. Includes vortices, thrust stream turb, jet wash, prop wash, and rotor wash. In ground and in air


Where are wake turb and wingtip vortices likely to occur

All aircraft generate turb and vortices. Avoid behind plane especially at low alt,



Land and hold short operation at controlled airports. At intersecting taxiway, runway or other designated areas from ATC. PIC can accept or deny depending on safety and below basic VFR


Available landing data (ALD) found

In special notices section of chart supplement and in Terminal procedure controllers provide the info


Look for drones

Cannot operate in controlled airspace without a waiver from FAA. Must fly below 400’AGL and in daylight


3 areas that contribute to runway incursions

Comm - misunderstanding, failure to comm
Airport knowledge - failure to nav the airport correctly, interpret signs
Cockpit procedures for maintaining orientation - failure to maintain situational awareness


Preflight includes

A. Review and understand signs, marking and lighting
B. Review airport diagram, planned taxi route, and identify hot spots
D. Pre-taxi/pre-landing briefing
E. Plan for critical times and locations on taxi route
F. Plan to complete as many plane checklist items as possible prior to taxi


Hot Spot

Runway safety related problem area or intersection on an airport. Complex confusing taxiway-taxiway or taxiway-runway intersection. Lack of visibility may exist or tower may be unable to see at certain areas


Sterile cockpit procedures

Focus on duties without distraction by non-flight matters unrelated to safety and procedures. Refrain from nonessential items. Brief passengers on this


Progressive taxi

Pilot unfamiliar with airport and confused, includes step by step taxi directions


Write down taxi instructions

Reduces pilots vulnerability to forget and reference for read back


When issued taxi route, automatically authorize to cross any runway that intersects

NO, must receive runway crossing for each runway that taxi route crosses


Read back info to controller

Runway assignment
Any clearance to enter specific runway
Any instruction to hold short of a specific runway or Lin up