Chapter 6 Economics Flashcards Preview

Anthropology > Chapter 6 Economics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 Economics Deck (50)
Loading flashcards...
1

The critical elements of any economic system are production, ____, and consumption.

Distribution

2

In economics, economizing behavior is ____.

Making choices in ways believed to provide the greatest benefit

3

Economics is the study of ____.

The ways in which the choices people make determine how their society uses resources

4

Capitalist cultures like those in the United States are defined by productivity for _____.

Wealth and material prosperity

5

As social complexity and population increases, the difference between economic system is mostly measured as a difference in ____.

Access to productive resources

6

Material goods, natural resources, or information used to create other goods or information are known as _____.

Productive resources.

7

In foraging (hunting and gathering) societies, land is ____.

Customarily used by certain groups, but others are not denied access to it.

8

Where resources are scarce and large area are needed to support the population, territorial boundaries are ____.

Usually not defended

9

Contemporary pastoralists primarily obtain access to land for grazing through ____.

Contracts with landowners as they pass through areas

10

In pastoral societies, ____ land is most essential factor in the functioning of the society.

Accessing

11

In horticultural societies, land is ____.

Communally owned by kin groups

12

Which statement is true regarding land among the Lacandon Maya, an extensive cultivating society?

Individuals retain right to land they have cleared even if they leave it fallow.

13

Which key factor determines if land is considered exclusive and consequently defended?

High population density

14

In capitalist societies, the principle form of resources is ____.

Capital

15

The idea of private ownership of land tends to develop in societies where ____.

Material and labor investment in land becomes substantial

16

Peasants generally ____.

Support a wealthy, landowning class

17

The right of an individual or family to use a piece of land and pass that land to descendants, but not sell or trade the land, is called ___.

Usufruct right

18

One critical economic difference between a firm and a household is ____.

Firms may grow with relative ease, but the structure of households limits their growth

19

A high degree of specialization of labor ____.

Tends to correlate with high population and agriculture intensification

20

Marcel Mauss, and many other anthropologist, theorized that an important function of gifting is to ___.

Hold a societies together

21

The dominant form of exchange in ____ is generalized reciprocity

Foraging societies

22

In a system of balanced reciprocity, giving a gift to someone ____.

Requires that the recipient returns a more or less equivalent gift at a later date

23

For the Trobriand Islanders, the central part of the Kula trade is ____.

Trading for bracelets and armbands

24

Balanced reciprocity is most typical among ____.

Non-industrialized people without economies

25

Kluckhohn showed that when the Navajo traded with outsiders, ____.

It was considered morally acceptable to deceive

26

How does the market exchange differ from reciprocity and redistribution?

Market exchange is an impersonal process

27

Because formal government is not present in the kula trading groups, ___.

It is important that relations between partners remain friendly to reinforce the close ties of the participants

28

A chief at a potlatch would typically _____.

Brag about his wealth and power

29

When a group collects goods and then gives them out to their owns members or members of their groups, they are participating in ___.

Redistribution

30

Which of the following best describes the economics of potlatch of the tribes of the Pacific Northwest Coast?

A method increasing productivity and distributing food and goods to a large dispersed population