Chapter 6 - Information Processing and Cognitive Theories of Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Information Processing and Cognitive Theories of Learning Deck (50):
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Information-Processing Theory

Cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge in the mind.

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Sensory Register

Component of the memory system in which information is received and held for very short periods of time.

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Perception

A person's interpretation of stimuli

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Attention

Active focus on certain stimuli to the exclusion of others

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Short-Term of Working Memory

The component of memory in which limited amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds.

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Rehearsal

Mental repetition of information, which can improve its retention.

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Long-Term Memory

The components of memory in which large amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time.

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Episodic Memory

A part of long-term memory that stores images of our personal experiences.

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Semantic Memory

A part of long-term memory that stores facts and general knowledge.

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Procedural Memory

A part of long-term memory that stores information about how to do things.

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Flashbulb Memory

Important events that are fixed mainly in visual and auditory memory.

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Schemata

Mental networks of related concepts that influence understanding of new information; the singular is schema.

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Levels-of-Processing Theory

Explanation of memory that links recall of a stimulus with the amount of mental processing it receives.

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Dual Code Theory of Memory

Theory suggesting that information coded both visually and verbally is remembered better than information coded in only one of those two ways.

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Interference

Inhibition of recall of certain information by the presence of other information in memory.

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Retroactive Inhibition

Decreased ability to recall previously learned information, caused by learning of new information.

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Proactive Inhibition

Decreased ability to learn new information, caused by interference from existing knowledge.

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Proactive Facilitation

Increased ability to learn new information based on the presence of previously acquired information.

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Retroactive Facilitation

Increased comprehension of previously learned information because of the acquisition of new information.

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Primacy Effect

The tendency for items at the beginning of a list to be recalled more easily than other items.

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Recency Effect

The tendency for items at the end of a list to be recalled more easily than other items.

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Automaticity

A level of rapidity and ease such that tasks can be performed or skills utilized with little mental effort.

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Massed Practice

Technique in which facts or skills to be learned are repeated often over a concentrated period of time.

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Distributed Practice

Technique in which items to be learned are repeated at intervals over a period of time.

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Enactment

A learning process in which individuals physically carry out tasks.

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Verbal Learning

Learning of words (or facts expressed in words)

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Paired-Associate Learning

Learning of items in linked pairs so that when one member of a pair is presented, the other can be recalled.

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Serial Learning

Memorization of a series of items in a particular order.

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Free-Recall Learning

Learning of a list of items in any orders.

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Imagery

Mental visualization of images to improve memory.

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Mnemonics

Devices or strategies for aiding the memory.

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Keyword Method

A strategy for improving memory by using images to link pairs of items.

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Loci Method

A strategy for remembering lists by picturing items in familiar locations.

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Pegword Method

A strategy for memorization in which images are used to link lists of facts to a familiar set of words or numbers.

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Initial-Letter Strategies

Strategies for learning in which initial letters of items to be memorized are made into a more easily remembered word or phrase.

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Rote Learning

Memorization of facts or associations that might be essentially arbitrary.

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Meaningful Learning

Mental processing of new information that relates to previously learned knowledge.

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Inert Knowledge

Learned information that could be applied to a wide range of situations but whose use is limited to restricted, often artificial, applications.

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Schema Theory

Theory stating that information is stored in long-term memory in schemata (networks of connected facts and concepts), which provide a structure for making sense of new knowledge.

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Metacognition

Knowledge about one's own learning or about how to learn ("thinking about thinking").

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Metacognitive Skills

Methods for learning, studying, or solving problems.

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Self-Questioning Strategies

Learning strategies that call on students to ask themselves who, what, where, and how questions as they read material.

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Note-Taking

A study strategy that requires decisions about what to write.

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Summarizing

Writing brief statements that represent the main idea of the information being read.

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Outlining

Representing the main points of material in hierarchical format.

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Concept Mapping

Diagramming main ideas and the connections between them.

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PQ4R Method

A study strategy that has students preview, question, read, reflect, recite, and review material.

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Advance Organizers

Activities and techniques that orient students to the material before reading or class presentation.

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Analogies

Images, concepts, or narratives that compare new material to information students already understand.

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Elaboration

The process of connecting new material to information or ideas already in the learner's mind.