Chapter 6 - Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Learning Deck (53):
1

Learning

A change in behavior, resulting from experience

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Habituation

A decrease in behavioral response after lengthy or repeated exposure to a stimulus

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Sensitization

An increase in behavioral response after lengthy or repeated exposure to a stimulus

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Classical conditioning

A type of learned response in which a neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces a response

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Unconditioned stimulus (US)

A stimulus that elicits a response that’s us innate and does it require any prior learning

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Unconditioned response (UR)

A response that does not have to be learned, such as reflex

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Conditioned stimulus (CS)

A stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place

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Conditioned response (CR)

A response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned

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Acquisition

The gradual formation of an association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli

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Extinction

A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus

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Spontaneous recovery

A process in which a previously extinguished response re-emerges after the conditioned stimulus is presented again

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Stimulus generalization

Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response

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Stimulus discrimination

A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus

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Second-order conditioning

Food->bell. Bell->black square

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Counterconditioning

Using something pleasant to rewrite the brain and disable phobias

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Operant conditioning

A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that the action will be performed in the future

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Positive reinforcement

The addition of a stimulus to increase the probability that a behavior will be repeated

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Negative reinforcement

The removal of a stimulus to increase the probability that a behavior will be repeated

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Positive punishment

The addition of a stimulus to decrease the probability that a behavior will recur

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Negative punishment

The removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability that a behavior will recur

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Fixed interval schedule (FI)

Reinforcing the occurrence of a particular behavior after a predetermined amount of time since the last reward

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Variable interval schedule (VI)

Reinforcing the occurrence of a particular behavior after an unpredictable and varying amount of time since the last reward

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Continuous reinforcement

When behavior is reinforced every time the action is carried out

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Partial reinforcement

When an action is reinforced occasionally

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Fixed ratio schedule (FR)

Reinforcing a particular behavior after that behavior has occurred a predetermined number of times

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Variable ratio schedule (VR)

Reinforcing a particular behavior after the behavior has occurred an unpredictable and varying number of times

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Partial-reinforcement extinction effect

The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement

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Cognitive map

A visuospatial mental representation of an environment

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Latent learning

Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement

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Insight learning

A sudden understanding of how to solve a problem after a period of either inaction or thinking about the problem

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Observational learning

The acquisition or modification of a behavior after exposure to at least one performance of that behavior

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Modeling

The imitation of behavior through observational learning

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Vicarious conditioning

Learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action

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In operant conditioning, removing a stimulus to increase a behavior in the future is called

Negative reinforcement

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Professor McCready wants to study animal learning by putting birds in a cage where they have to figure out how to peck a button to receive food. Professor McCready is using ________ To modify animal behavior

A Skinner box

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Whatever baby Colin cries, his mother picks him up. This stops Colin from crying. In turn, this makes Collins mother pick him up more often. In this example, his mother picking them up serves as a ______ reinforcer for Colin. Colin stopping crying is a __________ reinforcer for the mother

Positive; negative

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Reinforcement that comes after a predetermined amount of time is called a

Fixed interval

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A main outcome of Ivan Pavlov‘s research is that a neutral stimulus can become a condition stimulus....

After pairing it with a stimulus that triggers a reflexive response

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Jack uses classical conditioning to teach his dog Luna to sit whenever Jackson says “Sit”. But now, everything that Jack says that is similar to “Sit“ causes Luna to show the conditioned response of sitting. This is most likely the result of

Stimulus generalization

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Shanna wants to use an observational study to explore how classical conditioning works. Before beginning her own study, it would be most helpful for Shanna to read about the research of

Ivan Pavlov

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Professor Jackson periodically gives his students pop quizzes on the reading assignments. To encourage students to complete the reading assignments, the schedule of reinforcement you should use for the PopQuiz is a ________ schedule

Variable ratio

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Alanna knows that a startling noise will always make people blink their eyes. Alanna has learned to associate a blue light with startling noise, causing her to blink when she sees the blue light. When she blinks after seeing the blue light, she is showing a(n)

Conditioned response

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Professor Craig is known for his difficult quizzes, which automatically make the students anxious. Immediately before each quiz, he always turns off the projector. Students soon notice that they start to feel anxious when Professor Craig turns off the projector. In terms of classical conditioning, Professor Craig turning off the projector is a(n)

Conditioned stimulus

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You carpool with a friend to school every morning and he always drives. One day, your friend is sick and you have to drive yourself. Even though you have never actually driven to school, you know the exact route to take in order to get there from your house, which is most likely the result of

Latent learning

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If getting $1 for every correct answer on this test makes you study harder for the next test, then being given $1 is a form of

Positive reinforcement

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During the famous experiment with “little Albert,” Albert learned to fear rats when researchers used classical conditioning and presented a

Loud sound as the uncontrolled stimulus

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Positive punishment causes a(n) __________ in behavior through the _________ of a stimulus

Decrease; addition

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Albert has a beautiful garden in his backyard and notices that hummingbirds feed on the flowers at the same time each day in order to get the most nectar. The hummingbirds are being rewarded for their feeding behavior on a ___________ schedule of reinforcement

Fixed interval

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During Tammys Eye exam, the buzzer rings and a puff of air is blown into her eye, which makes her blink. This happens several times. Then Tammy blinks when she hears the buzzer because she expects that a puff of air will be blown into her eye. In this example, Tammy is showing _________ learning

Associative

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At a football game, you cannot help but feel excited whenever your team scores a touchdown. Because this is an unlearned response, in terms of classical conditioning, it would be called a(n)

Unconditioned response

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A rehabilitation center reinforces patients‘ good behaviors with Monopoly money, which they can then trade in for food, movies, or other privileges. When they behave badly, however, the patients lose monopoly money. To modify the patients‘ behavior, the center is using

A token economy

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A month ago, Jenny was pulled over for speeding, and because it was her third ticket this year, her license was suspended. Jenny just received her license back and vows never to speed again. In this situation, having her license suspended has served as

Negative punishment

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Fallon is afraid of loud noises, like thunder. She associates lighting with thunder because it regularly proceeds thunder. Thus, when Fallon sees lightning, she braces herself for hearing a big boom several seconds later. Fallon has experienced a certain kind of associative learning known as

Classical conditioning