Chapter 6 - Learning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Learning Deck (33):
1

Learning

A change in behavior, resulting from experience

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Habituation

A decrease in behavioral response after lengthy or repeated exposure to a stimulus

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Sensitization

An increase in behavioral response after lengthy or repeated exposure to a stimulus

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Classical conditioning

A type of learned response in which a neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces a response

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Unconditioned stimulus (US)

A stimulus that elicits a response that’s us innate and does it require any prior learning

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Unconditioned response (UR)

A response that does not have to be learned, such as reflex

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Conditioned stimulus (CS)

A stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place

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Conditioned response (CR)

A response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned

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Acquisition

The gradual formation of an association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli

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Extinction

A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus

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Spontaneous recovery

A process in which a previously extinguished response re-emerges after the conditioned stimulus is presented again

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Stimulus generalization

Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response

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Stimulus discrimination

A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus

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Second-order conditioning

Food->bell. Bell->black square

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Counterconditioning

Using something pleasant to rewrite the brain and disable phobias

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Operant conditioning

A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that the action will be performed in the future

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Positive reinforcement

The addition of a stimulus to increase the probability that a behavior will be repeated

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Negative reinforcement

The removal of a stimulus to increase the probability that a behavior will be repeated

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Positive punishment

The addition of a stimulus to decrease the probability that a behavior will recur

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Negative punishment

The removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability that a behavior will recur

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Fixed interval schedule (FI)

Reinforcing the occurrence of a particular behavior after a predetermined amount of time since the last reward

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Variable interval schedule (VI)

Reinforcing the occurrence of a particular behavior after an unpredictable and varying amount of time since the last reward

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Continuous reinforcement

When behavior is reinforced every time the action is carried out

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Partial reinforcement

When an action is reinforced occasionally

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Fixed ratio schedule (FR)

Reinforcing a particular behavior after that behavior has occurred a predetermined number of times

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Variable ratio schedule (VR)

Reinforcing a particular behavior after the behavior has occurred an unpredictable and varying number of times

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Partial-reinforcement extinction effect

The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement

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Cognitive map

A visuospatial mental representation of an environment

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Latent learning

Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement

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Insight learning

A sudden understanding of how to solve a problem after a period of either inaction or thinking about the problem

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Observational learning

The acquisition or modification of a behavior after exposure to at least one performance of that behavior

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Modeling

The imitation of behavior through observational learning

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Vicarious conditioning

Learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action