Chapter 6 - Making War and Republican Governments, 1776-1789 Flashcards Preview

AP U.S. History > Chapter 6 - Making War and Republican Governments, 1776-1789 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Making War and Republican Governments, 1776-1789 Deck (43):
1

George Washington

general in the Continental Army; later became the first president

2

General William Howe

British officer and commander in chief during the American Revolution

3

Battle of Long Island

first major engagement of new Continental Army; resulted in forced American retreat to Manhattan Island

4

Battle of Saratoga

turning point of war - British officer Burgoyne and troops were herded and attacked by thousands of American militiamen, forcing surrender

5

Horatio Gates

leader of American troops in the Battle of Saratoga

6

nonassociators

people who refused to join neither the Patriot nor the Loyalist side

7

Robert Morris

chief American treasury official; secured loans from France, Holland, and wealthy colonials during the Revolutionary War

8

Valley Forge

encampment of Washington's Continental Army during the winter of 1777; resulted in thousands of deaths and casualties from malnutrition and disease

9

Baron von Steuben

former Prussian military officer who joined the American cause and drilled soldiers into professional militarism at Valley Forge

10

Comte de Vergennes

French foreign minister who was determined to avenge the loss of Canada in the Great War for Empire, thus advocating for France to join the American cause (formally declared after victory at Saratoga)

11

Louis XVI

French monarch who aided colonists during the Revolutionary War

12

Treaty of Alliance (1778)

defensive treaty of alliance between France and America

13

Ethiopian Regiment

army of slaves led by Lord Dunmore for the British cause

14

Philipsburg Proclamation

declared that any slave who deserted a rebel master would receive protection, freedom, and land from Great Britain

15

Sir Henry Clinton

British officer who captured southern regions as an effort to enlist slaves in the British army

16

General Nathanael Greene

Continental general who forced British officer Charles Cornwallis and troops to abandon the Carolinas and head to Virginia

17

General Benedict Arnold

general who betrayed the colonies (who he originally fought for) and switched to the British side

18

Battle of Yorktown

French and American forces cornered Cornwallis's army, forcing surrender and ending the war

19

"currency tax"

an implicit tax on Continental bills as a result of rampant inflation

20

Treaty of Paris (1783)

Great Britain formally recognizes American independence and relinquishes land claims south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River (consequently forcing Indians to cede land)

21

Treaty of Versailles (1783)

Britain made peace with France and Spain (neither American ally gained much)

22

Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776

created one-house legislature with complete power and no governor to exercise a veto

23

mixed government

British Whig theory where the monarch, the House of Lords, and the Commons share power

24

Abigail Adams

wife of John Adams; demanded equal legal rights for married women

25

Judith Sargent Murray

author of "On the Equality of the Sexes" - argued that men and women had equal capacities for memory and that women had superior imaginations

26

Articles of Confederation

written document defining the Union as a confederation of equal states, with no executive and limited powers, existing mainly to foster a common defense

27

Ordinance of 1784

established principle that territories could become states as their populations grew

28

Land Ordinance of 1785

mandated rectangular grid system of surveying and specified minimum price of $1 per acre, placed limits on sizes of land parcels

29

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

created territories that would later become Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin; prohibited slavery, supported schools, promised that Congress would appoint a governor and judges to each territory until the population reached 5,000 free adult men (at which point citizens could elect a legislature), promised application to join the Confederation once the population reached 60,000

30

Shays's Rebellion

uprising led by angry farmers in western Massachusetts (many of them Revolutionary War veterans) protesting taxation policies of eastern elites who controlled the state's government

31

Constitution of 1787

created new two-level political federation in which national government would exercise delegated powers while existing state governments would retain authority over everything else

32

The Philadelphia Convention

meeting of 55 American delegates to debate, draft, and sign the Constitution

33

Virginia Plan

a scheme for powerful national government devised by James Madison (supported by larger states)

34

New Jersey Plan

devised by William Paterson; gave national government minimal powers and preserved state control of individual laws and guaranteed their equality (supported by smaller states)

35

The Great Compromise

agreement to have an upper chamber (Senate, two representatives per state) and lower chamber (House of Representatives, representatives based on population) in national legislature

36

Three-Fifths Compromise

agreement that every slave be counted as three-fifths of a free person for purposes of taxation and representation

37

Federalists

supporters of the Constitution and centralized government

38

Antifederalists

opposers of the Constitution and centralized government

39

Federalist Papers

a series of 85 essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay in support of Federalism; they influenced leaders throughout the country to support the new Constitution - John Jay got sick after writing 5, James Madison wrote 29, and Hamilton wrote the other 51

40

Federalist No. 10

one of the Federalist Papers in which Madison challenged the view that republican governments only worked on a small scale, arguing that a large state would better protect republican liberty

41

James Madison

American statesman, political theorist, and fourth president

42

John Adams

Founding Father and second president (as well as first vice president)

43

John Hancock

politician, entrepreneur, and soldier famous for his large signature on the Declaration of Independence

Decks in AP U.S. History Class (31):