Chapter 6 - Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors Deck (25):
1

The two major categories of neurotransmitters are..

Small-molecule neurotransmitters and neuropeptides.

2

What are the major groups of small-molecule neurotransmitters?

1. Acetylcholine
2. Amino acids
3. Purines
4. Biogenic amines

3

Mention some amino acid neurotransmitters.

1. Glutamate
2. Aspartate
3. GABA
4. Glycine

4

Mention a purine neurotransmitter.

ATP

5

Biogenic amines is a group of small-molecule neurotransmitters. It has subgroups. What are they?

1. Catecholamines
2. Indoleamine
3. Imidazoleamine

6

Mention three catecholamines.

1. Dopamine
2. Norepinephrine
3. Epinephrine

7

Mention an indoleamine.

Serotonin (5-HT)

8

Mention an imidazoleamine.

Histamine.

9

What category neurotransmitter is Epinephrine?

Small molecule neurotransmitters, Biogenic amines, Catecholamines.

10

What category neurotransmitter is ATP?

Small molecule neurotransmitters, Purines

11

What category neurotransmitter is Aspartate?

Small molecule neurotransmitter, Amino Acids

12

What category neurotransmitter is Acetylcholine?

Small molecule neurotransmitter.

13

What category neurotransmitter is Dopamine?

Small molecule neurotransmitters, Biogenic amines, Catecholamines.

14

What category neurotransmitter is Histamine?

Small molecule neurotransmitters, Biogenic amines, Imidazoleamine.

15

What category neurotransmitter is Glutamate?

Small molecule neurotransmitters, Amino Acids.

16

What category neurotransmitter is GABA?

Small molecule neurotransmitters, Amino Acids

17

What category neurotransmitter is Norepinephrine?

Small molecule neurotransmitters, Biogenic amines, Catecholamines.

18

What category neurotransmitter is Glycine?

Small molecule neurotransmitters, Amino Acids.

19

All the glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA and kainate) are ionotropic receptors, but the NMDA receptor works slightly differently. NMDA receptors pass cations only when then postsynaptic membrane potential is depolarised, such as during activation of strong excitatory inputs and/or during action potential firing in the postsynaptic cell. What makes the NMDA receptor able to do this?

The NMDA receptor is blocked by Mg2+ at hyperpolarized membrane potentials, while depolarisation pushes Mg2+ out of the pore. This imparts a peculiar voltage dependence to current flow through the receptor.

20

What is/are the major excitatory neurotransmitter(s) in the brain?

Glutamate.

21

What is/are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter(s) in the brain?

GABA and glycine.

22

What's a functional difference between the small-molecule transmitters and the neuropeptides?

The actions of the small-molecule neurotransmitters are typically faster than those of the neuropeptides.

23

Two types of neurotransmitter receptors. They are.

Ionotropic and metabotropic.

24

What's a metabotropic receptor?

Metabotropic receptors regulate the activity of postsynaptic ion channels indirectly, usually via G-proteins, and induce slower and longer-lasting electrical responses.

25

What's a ionotropic receptor?

Ionotropic or ligand-gated ion channels combine the neurotransmitter receptor and ion channel in one molecular entity, and therefore give rise to rapid postsynaptic electrical responses.