Chapter 6: nucleic acids and protein synthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: nucleic acids and protein synthesis Deck (22):
1

what are nucleotides made up of?

-ribose base
-pentose sugar
-phosphate group

2

name the two purine bases

adenine
guanine

3

name the three pyrimidine bases

thymine
uracil
cytosin

4

what three things make up the structure of a molecule of ATP?

adenine
ribose
three phosphate groups

5

how are polynucleotides arranged?

-covalent bonds link the 5'-carbon and 3'-carbon of sugar molecules together

6

how are the two polypeptide bonds held together?

with hydrogen bonds

7

DNA has a ... structure

double helix

8

RNA has a ... structure

single strand

9

what is the name for the process in which a DNA molecule is copied?

semi-conservative replication

10

during DNA replication, what activates the free nucleotides?

the two extra phosphate groups

11

during DNA replication, how are the new nucleotides linked together?

using covalent bonds

12

what is a gene?

a sequence of nucleotides that forms part of a DNA molecule

13

what is a gene mutation?

a change in the sequence of nucleotides that may result in an altered polypeptide

14

during transcription, what bonds the sugar phosphate groups together?

RNA polymerase

15

what is the function of RNA polymerase during transcription?

it bonds together the sugar-phosphate groups of RNA nucleotides during transcription

16

describe the structure of a tRNA molecule

one end has a site where an amino acid can bind to
the other end has 3 unpaired bases

17

what is always the first codon that is translated?

AUG (complementary anticodon from the tRNA is therefore always UAC)

18

what bond is formed between two amino acids?

a peptide bond

19

which enzyme catalyses the formation of a peptide bond?

peptidl transferase

20

name the three stop codons

UAA, UAC and UGA

21

where does the mRNA bind to on the ribosome

the small subunit

22

what is mRNA involved with?

translation