Flashcards in Chapter 6: nucleic acids and protein synthesis Deck (22):
what are nucleotides made up of?
name the two purine bases
name the three pyrimidine bases
what three things make up the structure of a molecule of ATP?
three phosphate groups
how are polynucleotides arranged?
-covalent bonds link the 5'-carbon and 3'-carbon of sugar molecules together
how are the two polypeptide bonds held together?
with hydrogen bonds
DNA has a ... structure
RNA has a ... structure
what is the name for the process in which a DNA molecule is copied?
during DNA replication, what activates the free nucleotides?
the two extra phosphate groups
during DNA replication, how are the new nucleotides linked together?
using covalent bonds
what is a gene?
a sequence of nucleotides that forms part of a DNA molecule
what is a gene mutation?
a change in the sequence of nucleotides that may result in an altered polypeptide
during transcription, what bonds the sugar phosphate groups together?
what is the function of RNA polymerase during transcription?
it bonds together the sugar-phosphate groups of RNA nucleotides during transcription
describe the structure of a tRNA molecule
one end has a site where an amino acid can bind to
the other end has 3 unpaired bases
what is always the first codon that is translated?
AUG (complementary anticodon from the tRNA is therefore always UAC)
what bond is formed between two amino acids?
a peptide bond
which enzyme catalyses the formation of a peptide bond?
name the three stop codons
UAA, UAC and UGA
where does the mRNA bind to on the ribosome
the small subunit