Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Personality and Lifestyles Deck (68):
A person's unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his/her environment
Freudian says our personality drives to what?
To maximize our pleasure and to avoid pain. The conflict of regulation through ego and superego occurs at unconscious level (typical Freud...)
What are the two marketing implications of freudian personality systems?
They can't sometimes tell you why they bought something, because the motive to buy was unconscious.
Also symbolism in products are set to compromise id and superego
What are three aspects to motivational research (Freudian)
1. Freudian ideas unlock deeper product and ad meaning
2. Consumer depth interviews
3. Latent motives for purchases
What are 3 criticisms of motivational research?
1. Invalid (interpretation bias)
2. works to well (power of motivation)
3. Too sexually based
What are 4 appeals with motivational research?
1. Less expensive than large scale surveys
2. Powerful hoot for promo strategy
3. Intuitively plausible findings (after the fact)
4. Enhanced validity with other techniques
Who is Carl Jung?
He made analytical psychology
What are 4 characteristics of Carl Jungs analytical psychology theories?
1. Collective unconsious
2. Archetypes in advertising are universally shared (old wise man, mother earth)
3. Emphasized both individuals development as a creative person and his or her individual and racial history in formation of personality
4. People are shaped by cumulative experiences of past generations
How do some brands have personalities quite similar to human personalities?
1. archetypes across cultures and time
2. Archetypes telegraph instantly
3. strong evidence of achieving business objectives with this model
4. Early warning signal of brand trouble
What is Personality Trait Theory?
This focuses on quantitative measurement of personality traits
What are 5 trails relavant to consumer behaviour?
1. Innovativeness (they'll try new things)
2. Materialism (emphasis placed on acquisitions)
3. Self-conciousness (image to others)
4. Need for cognition (thinking effort)
5. Frugality (thriftiness)
What are the innies or outies?
An inner-directed person has a unique sense of self, whereas outer-directed cares more about pleasing others/fitting in
What is need for uniqueness?
Degree to which a person is motivated to conform to preferences of others vs. standing apart from crowd
What are 6 problems with trait theory?
1. Scales being not valid/reliable over time
2. Tests borrow scales used for mentally ill, not generalization
3. Inappropriate testing conditions
4. Ad hoc instrument changes which can't compare scales
5. Use of global measures to predict specific brand purchases
6. Shotgun approach, whereas no thought has been given to scale application
Are traits everything with personality?
No, traits are only part of the story
Are predictions of product choices using traits good predictions?
They are mixed at best, and only part of the story
What is a brand personality?
These are a set of traits that people attribute to a product as if it were a person
What characteristics is a brand with good brand equity?
Strong positive associations in consumer memory and commands a lot of loyalty as a result
What are the two levels of animism?
level 1: Brand = spokesperson and loved ones such as pillsbury dough boy and michelin man
level 2: Anthropomorphized brands
brand personality is a statement of what?
Brand personality is a statement of brand positioning
Why do some brands re-position?
To gain new interest in their products
Patterns of consumptions reflecting a persons choices of how one spends time and money
(who we are and what we do)
How are lifestyles group identities?
Well they are expressive symbolism among group members sharing those common symbol systems.
Each person provides a unique twist to be an individual
Is lifestyle static?
No, tastes/preferences evolve over time
What are the 3 characteristics of lifestyle marketing?
1. Product usage in desirable social settings (outdoorsy fold, showing product outside)
2. Consumption style
3. Patterns of behaviour
What are 3 patterns of behaviour with lifestyle marketing?
1. Co-branding strategies
(brands teaming up with other companies to promote products)
2. Product complementarity
(symbolic meanings of different products relating to one another)
3. Consumption constellations
(define, communicate and perform social roles)
What are 3 uses of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors?
1. Determine market segments
2. Determine their reasons for choosing products
3. Fine-tune offerings to meet needs of different segments
What 3 factors are psychographics made of?
Why and when where psychographics made?
in 60s and 70s because motivational research and survey research was flawed
Demographics tell us who buys, but psychographics tell us ___ they buy
Psychographics tell us why they buy
AIOs group consumer according to?
What is the 20/80 rule?
Lifestyle segments that produce the bulk of customers, heavy users and the befits they derive from product.
I know this isn't full 20/80 rule... carry on
What are 6 uses of psychographic segmentation uses?
1. To define target market
2. Create new view of market
3. To Position product
4. To better communicate product attributes
5. To develop overall strategy
6. To market social/political issues
With the VALS framework, what are the 3 consumers with high resources and high innovation called? What are 3 low resources and low innovation called?
Innovators for high
Survivors for low
What is Geodemography?
Consumer expenditures/socioeconomic factors + geographic information
So it's saying that people that live close to each other are similar and have things in common.
How can two people believe in the same behaviour, but have very different values?
So vegetarians, one can not eat meat due to health, but the other because of animal activism. Both different values
Values are central to what?
Values are central to what makes a consumer distinct in their consumption and in society
Define a value
A value is a belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite
What are core values?
These are values that are imparted to a culture's members. Such as by country, and they change over time
Core values define what, and are taught how?
A culture and are taught to us by socialization agents (parents, teachers, friends etc) through enculturation
Are some values universal?
Yup, such as health, wisdom, etc
What is the Rokeach Value Survey
Defines terminal values/desired end state - applicable to various cultures
What is the List of Values (LOV) scale
Developed specifically for marketing use, that focus on nine consumer segmnets that endorse values such as sense of belonging and security
What are the two ways to classify values?
1. Rokeach Value survey
2. List of Values (LOV) Scale
What is LOHAS?
Lifestyles of health and sustainability new Core Value. Seen by things such as Green spreading, and walmart Live better index
What are some materialistic tendencies?
Dislike of school, and poor grades
Does materialism lead to unhappiness?
Yup, the more you obtain the more unsatisfied you are.
What operate to the pleasure principle in the mind?
There are many motives for consumption identified by ernest dichter, what are 4?
2. Moral purity/cleanliness
What are 3 reasons motivational research has appeal to some marketers?
1. Cost Efficiency
(less expensive than surveys and interviews)
2. Providing Insights
(Knowledge from this research can help start on creative strategies)
3. Intuitive Sense
(Some of the findings just make intuitive sense, such as the first car being associated with adolescence and sexual freedom)
Compare personality with lifestyle
So a personality is someones unique psychological makeup and how they respond to environment, whereas lifestyle is more how they choose to spend time and money
What is grouping lifestyle differences by AIOs?
What are consumption constellations
These are interrelated sets of products and activities associated with social roles. People often purchase things that are in a constellation associated with their lifestyle
What is geodemography?
Using geographical and demographic data to group clusters of consumers who have similar psychographics
Who was one of the most prominent neo-freudians who said people can described as moving toward others (compliant), away from others (detached), or against others (aggressive). And that these three types can be products
What are Carl Jungs archetypes?
These are universally shared ideas and behaviour patterns, such as birth, death, and evil.
What are idiocentrics and allocentrisc?
Idio are individual orientation, whereas allo is group orientation
When does product complementarity occur?
This occurs when the symbolic meanings of different products are related to each other, these sets of products are consumption constellations
What are 6 ways psychographics can be used?
1. Define target market
2. Create new view of market
3. position the product
4. Better communicate product attributes
5. Develop overall strategy
6. Market social and political issues
What is the most well-known and widely used segmentation system for lifestyles?
(Values and Lifestyles)
With VALS, what are top three innovators called?
Thinkers, achievers, and experiencers
With VALS, what are the bottom three survivors called?
Believers, strivers, and makers
Define value as this text does
A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite
What is the process of learning the value systems and behaviours of another culture?
whereas learning your own is enculturation
What are terminal values?
These are desired end states
So conscientious consumerism is becoming a more important value, what is the segment of those who hold it most?
Lifestyles of health and sustainability
what kind of values are best described as values that include convenient shopping, prompt service, and easy return policies.