Chapter 6 - Personality and Lifestyles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 - Personality and Lifestyles Deck (68):
1

Define personality

A person's unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his/her environment

2

Freudian says our personality drives to what?

To maximize our pleasure and to avoid pain. The conflict of regulation through ego and superego occurs at unconscious level (typical Freud...)

3

What are the two marketing implications of freudian personality systems?

They can't sometimes tell you why they bought something, because the motive to buy was unconscious.

Also symbolism in products are set to compromise id and superego

4

What are three aspects to motivational research (Freudian)

1. Freudian ideas unlock deeper product and ad meaning

2. Consumer depth interviews

3. Latent motives for purchases

5

What are 3 criticisms of motivational research?

1. Invalid (interpretation bias)

2. works to well (power of motivation)

3. Too sexually based

6

What are 4 appeals with motivational research?

1. Less expensive than large scale surveys

2. Powerful hoot for promo strategy

3. Intuitively plausible findings (after the fact)

4. Enhanced validity with other techniques

7

Who is Carl Jung?

He made analytical psychology

8

What are 4 characteristics of Carl Jungs analytical psychology theories?

1. Collective unconsious

2. Archetypes in advertising are universally shared (old wise man, mother earth)

3. Emphasized both individuals development as a creative person and his or her individual and racial history in formation of personality

4. People are shaped by cumulative experiences of past generations

9

How do some brands have personalities quite similar to human personalities?

1. archetypes across cultures and time

2. Archetypes telegraph instantly

3. strong evidence of achieving business objectives with this model

4. Early warning signal of brand trouble

10

What is Personality Trait Theory?

This focuses on quantitative measurement of personality traits

11

What are 5 trails relavant to consumer behaviour?

1. Innovativeness (they'll try new things)

2. Materialism (emphasis placed on acquisitions)

3. Self-conciousness (image to others)

4. Need for cognition (thinking effort)

5. Frugality (thriftiness)

12

What are the innies or outies?

An inner-directed person has a unique sense of self, whereas outer-directed cares more about pleasing others/fitting in

13

What is need for uniqueness?

Degree to which a person is motivated to conform to preferences of others vs. standing apart from crowd

14

What are 6 problems with trait theory?

1. Scales being not valid/reliable over time

2. Tests borrow scales used for mentally ill, not generalization

3. Inappropriate testing conditions

4. Ad hoc instrument changes which can't compare scales

5. Use of global measures to predict specific brand purchases

6. Shotgun approach, whereas no thought has been given to scale application

15

Are traits everything with personality?

No, traits are only part of the story

16

Are predictions of product choices using traits good predictions?

They are mixed at best, and only part of the story

17

What is a brand personality?

These are a set of traits that people attribute to a product as if it were a person

18

What characteristics is a brand with good brand equity?

Strong positive associations in consumer memory and commands a lot of loyalty as a result

19

What are the two levels of animism?

level 1: Brand = spokesperson and loved ones such as pillsbury dough boy and michelin man

level 2: Anthropomorphized brands

20

brand personality is a statement of what?

Brand personality is a statement of brand positioning

21

Why do some brands re-position?

To gain new interest in their products

22

Define lifestyles

Patterns of consumptions reflecting a persons choices of how one spends time and money

(who we are and what we do)

23

How are lifestyles group identities?

Well they are expressive symbolism among group members sharing those common symbol systems.

Each person provides a unique twist to be an individual

24

Is lifestyle static?

No, tastes/preferences evolve over time

25

What are the 3 characteristics of lifestyle marketing?

1. Product usage in desirable social settings (outdoorsy fold, showing product outside)

2. Consumption style

3. Patterns of behaviour

26

What are 3 patterns of behaviour with lifestyle marketing?

1. Co-branding strategies
(brands teaming up with other companies to promote products)

2. Product complementarity
(symbolic meanings of different products relating to one another)

3. Consumption constellations
(define, communicate and perform social roles)

27

What are 3 uses of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors?

1. Determine market segments

2. Determine their reasons for choosing products

3. Fine-tune offerings to meet needs of different segments

28

What 3 factors are psychographics made of?

1. Psychological

2. Sociological

3. Anthropological

29

Why and when where psychographics made?

in 60s and 70s because motivational research and survey research was flawed

30

Demographics tell us who buys, but psychographics tell us ___ they buy

Psychographics tell us why they buy

31

AIOs group consumer according to?

-Activities
-Interests
-Opinions

32

What is the 20/80 rule?

Lifestyle segments that produce the bulk of customers, heavy users and the befits they derive from product.

I know this isn't full 20/80 rule... carry on

33

What are 6 uses of psychographic segmentation uses?

1. To define target market

2. Create new view of market

3. To Position product

4. To better communicate product attributes

5. To develop overall strategy

6. To market social/political issues

34

With the VALS framework, what are the 3 consumers with high resources and high innovation called? What are 3 low resources and low innovation called?

Innovators for high

Survivors for low

35

What is Geodemography?

Consumer expenditures/socioeconomic factors + geographic information

So it's saying that people that live close to each other are similar and have things in common.

36

How can two people believe in the same behaviour, but have very different values?

So vegetarians, one can not eat meat due to health, but the other because of animal activism. Both different values

37

Values are central to what?

Values are central to what makes a consumer distinct in their consumption and in society

38

Define a value

A value is a belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite

39

What are core values?

These are values that are imparted to a culture's members. Such as by country, and they change over time

40

Core values define what, and are taught how?

A culture and are taught to us by socialization agents (parents, teachers, friends etc) through enculturation

41

Are some values universal?

Yup, such as health, wisdom, etc

42

What is the Rokeach Value Survey

Defines terminal values/desired end state - applicable to various cultures

43

What is the List of Values (LOV) scale

Developed specifically for marketing use, that focus on nine consumer segmnets that endorse values such as sense of belonging and security

44

What are the two ways to classify values?

1. Rokeach Value survey

2. List of Values (LOV) Scale

45

What is LOHAS?

Lifestyles of health and sustainability new Core Value. Seen by things such as Green spreading, and walmart Live better index

46

What are some materialistic tendencies?

Dislike of school, and poor grades

47

Does materialism lead to unhappiness?

Yup, the more you obtain the more unsatisfied you are.

48

What operate to the pleasure principle in the mind?

id

49

There are many motives for consumption identified by ernest dichter, what are 4?

1. Power/masculinity/virility

2. Moral purity/cleanliness

3. Status

4. Feminity

50

What are 3 reasons motivational research has appeal to some marketers?

1. Cost Efficiency
(less expensive than surveys and interviews)

2. Providing Insights
(Knowledge from this research can help start on creative strategies)

3. Intuitive Sense
(Some of the findings just make intuitive sense, such as the first car being associated with adolescence and sexual freedom)

51

Compare personality with lifestyle

So a personality is someones unique psychological makeup and how they respond to environment, whereas lifestyle is more how they choose to spend time and money

52

What is grouping lifestyle differences by AIOs?

Activities
Interests
Opinions

53

What are consumption constellations

These are interrelated sets of products and activities associated with social roles. People often purchase things that are in a constellation associated with their lifestyle

54

What is geodemography?

Using geographical and demographic data to group clusters of consumers who have similar psychographics

55

Who was one of the most prominent neo-freudians who said people can described as moving toward others (compliant), away from others (detached), or against others (aggressive). And that these three types can be products

Karen Horney

56

What are Carl Jungs archetypes?

These are universally shared ideas and behaviour patterns, such as birth, death, and evil.

57

What are idiocentrics and allocentrisc?

Idio are individual orientation, whereas allo is group orientation

58

When does product complementarity occur?

This occurs when the symbolic meanings of different products are related to each other, these sets of products are consumption constellations

59

What are 6 ways psychographics can be used?

1. Define target market
2. Create new view of market
3. position the product
4. Better communicate product attributes
5. Develop overall strategy
6. Market social and political issues

60

What is the most well-known and widely used segmentation system for lifestyles?

VALS
(Values and Lifestyles)

61

With VALS, what are top three innovators called?

Thinkers, achievers, and experiencers

62

With VALS, what are the bottom three survivors called?

Believers, strivers, and makers

63

Define value as this text does

A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite

64

What is the process of learning the value systems and behaviours of another culture?

Acculturation

whereas learning your own is enculturation

65

What are terminal values?

These are desired end states

66

So conscientious consumerism is becoming a more important value, what is the segment of those who hold it most?

LOHAS
Lifestyles of health and sustainability

67

what kind of values are best described as values that include convenient shopping, prompt service, and easy return policies.

Consumption-specific values

68

What are three types of values?

1. Cultural values

2. Consumption-specific values

3. Product-specific values

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