Chapter 6: Personality and Personal History Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Personality and Personal History Deck (23):
1

Personality

The relatively stable and distinctive qualities that characterize an individual, that have some coherence or internal organization to them, and that influence how the person behaves in and adapts to the world.

2

Trait Approach

The study of personality based on the adjectives that people use to describe themselves and others.

3

Big Five

The five broad personality traits that capture most of the personality differences between individuals: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and consciousness.

4

Children who have a tendency to throw temper tantrums...

Are twice as likely to divorce later, and women are more likely to marry men of lower occupational status.

5

Neuroticism

A personality trait distinguished by the tendency to experience and express pessimism and negative emotions.

6

Negative Affectivity

Same as neuroticism.

7

If a person is neurotic in an intimate relationship, they are more likely to...

Negatively interpret the partner's behaviours. This view does not change over time.

8

People do/don't tend to pair up with those with similar personalities.

Don't.

9

Dependency Regulation Model

A model addressing how individuals in intimate relationships balance their desires for closeness to their partners with the recognition that intimacy also leaves them vulnerable to being hurt or betrayed; applied specifically to explain how those with low self-esteem may sabotage their relationships by underestimating how favourably their partners view them.

10

What are the 4 key phases in the Dependency Regulation Model?

1. Low self-esteem.
2. Underestimating the partner's regard for self.
3. Perceiving the partner in an unfavourable light.
4. Perceiving the relationship in an unfavourable light.

11

Is high or low self-esteem a personality or a mood trait?

Personality.

12

Individuals low in self-esteem typically assume their partners do not...

Regard them highly.

13

What group of people tend not to make mountains out of molehills?

Confident people.

14

Who becomes unhappy in a relationship between partner A and B when partner A has low self-esteem?

Partner B.

15

Family of Origin

The family in which a person was raised through childhood.

16

Intergenerational Transmission Effects

The characteristics of one's family of origin that carry forward to affect intimate relationships in adolescence and adulthood.

17

5 conclusions about divorce:

1. Adverse effects are evident in a range of domains.
2. Magnitude of effects can be interpreted in different ways.
3. Affected by economic circumstances, parents' mental health, and quality of child's contact with parent.
4. High levels of conflict lead to difficulties in children's lives, with or without divorce.
5. Well-being of adult offspring depends on divorce/marriage before divorce.

18

In what domains are children affected as a result of divorce?

Academic achievement, conduct and behaviour, psychological adjustment, self-esteem, and social relationships.

19

Parental divorce ___ the risk of adverse consequences for the offspring.

Doubles.

20

Having a divorce lead to the adult offspring being more likely to...

Divorce, contemplate divorce, exercise caution towards marriage, marry earlier, are morel likely to be in common-law relationships.

21

How does social learning theory explain divorce?

People learn about relationships from our parents, and if they have a tumultuous relationship, the likelihood that they too will have unstable relationships goes up.

22

Attachment Theory

An influential theory of intimate relationships proposing that the relationships formed in adulthood are shaped largely by the nature of the bonds formed with primary caregivers in infancy and early childhood.

23

Attachment Behaviour System

A set of behaviours and reactions that helps ensure a developing child's survival by keeping the child in close physical contact with caregivers.