Chapter 6 Quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Quiz Deck (62):
0

Advance Organizers

activities and techniques that orient students to the material before reading or class presentation

1

Amygdala

the part of the brain that regulates basic emotions

2

Analogies

Images, concepts, or narratives that compare new material to information students already understand

3

Attention

active focus on certain stimuli to the exclusion of others

4

Automaticity

a level of rapidly and ease such that tasks can be performed or skills utilized with little mental effort

5

Brain Stem

the part of the brain at the base that controls basic functions common to all animals

6

Cerebellum

the part of the brain that controls smooth, coordinated movement

7

concept mapping

diagramming main ideas and the connections between them

8

Corpus Collosum

connects the two hemispheres of the brain and coordinates their function

9

Dendrites

part of a brain cell at the end of a neuron that helps conduct information

10

distributed practice

technique in which items to be learned are repeated at intervals over a period of time

11

Dual Code Theory of Memory

theory suggesting that information coded both visually and verbally is remembered better than information coded in only one of those two days

12

Elaboration

the process of connecting new material to information or ideas already in the learners mind

13

Enactment

a learning process in which individuals physically carry out tasks

14

Episodic Memory

a part of long-term memory that stores images of our personal experiences

15

flashbulb memory

important events that are fixed mainly in visual and auditory memory

16

Free-recall Learning

learning of a list of items in any order

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Hippocampus

part of the brain that controls transfer of information from short term to long term memory

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imagery

mental visualization of images to improve memory

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Inert Knowledge

learned information that could be applied to a wide range of situations but whose use is limited to restricted, often artificial, applications

20

Information Processing Theory

Cognitive Theory of learning that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge in my mind

21

Initial Letter Strategies

strategies for learning in which letters of items to be memorized are made into a more easily remembered word or phrase

22

Interference

Inhibition of recall of certain information in memory

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Interference

inhibition of recall of certain information by the presense of other in memory

24

Key word method

a strategy for improving memory by using images to link pairs of items

25

Levels of Processing theory

explanation of memory that links recall of a stimulus with the amoun of mental processing it receives

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limbic system

layer immediately above the brainstem, composed of the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amyglada

27

Loci Method

a strategy for remembering lists by picturing items in familiar locations

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long term memory

the components of memory in which large amounts of information can be stored for long periods of time

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massed practice

technique in which facts or skills to be learned are repeated often over a concentrated period of time

30

Meaningful Learning

mental processing of new information that relates to previously learned knowledge

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Metacognition

thinking about thinking

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metacognitive skills

methods for learning, studying or solving problems

33

mnemonics

devices or strategies for aiding the memory

34

neurons

a long cell in the brain that helps transmit information

35

note-taking

a study strategy that requires decisions about what to write

36

outlining

representing the main points of material in hierarchical format

37

paired associate learning

learning of items in linked pairs so that when one member of a pair is presented, the other can be recalled

38

Pegword Method

a strategy in which images are used to link lists of facts to a familiar set of words or numbers

39

Perception

a persons interpretation of stimuli

40

PQ4R method

a study strategy that has students preview, question, read, reflect, recite and review material

41

Primary Effect

the tendency for the items at the beginning of a list to be recalled more easily than other items

42

Proactive Facilitation

increased ability to learn mew information based on the presence of previously acquired information

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Proactive Inhibitation

decreased ability to learn new information, caused by interference from existing knowledge

44

Procedural Memory

a part of long term memory that stores information about how to do things

45

Recency effect

the tendency for items at the end of a list to be recalled more easily than other items

46

rehearsal

mental repetition of information, which can improve its retention

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retroactive Facilitation

increased comprehension of previously learned information because of the acquisition of new information

48

Retroactive Inhibition

decreased ability to recall previously learned information caused by learning of new information

49

rote learning

memorization of facts or associations that might be essentially arbitrary

50

schemata

mental networks of related concepts that influence understanding of new information; the singular is schema

51

schema theory

theory stating that new information is stored in long-term memory in schemata, which provide a structure for making sense of new information

52

self-questioning strategies

learning strategies that call on student to ask themselves who, what, where and how questions as they read material

53

semantic memory

a part of long term memory that stores facts and general knowledge

54

Sensory Register

component of the memory system in which information is received and held for very short periods of time

55

Serial Learning

memorization of a series of items in a particular order

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short term memory

the composed of memory in which limited amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds. (working Memory)

57

Summarizing

writing brief statements that represent the main idea of the information being read

58

Synapses

tiny branches on the end of the dendrite that receive stimuli and pass them on to other neurons or to the brain

59

Thalmus

receives information about all senses except smell, and passes the information on to the rest of the brain

60

Verbal Learning

Learning of words

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Working Memory

the component of memory in which limited amounts of information can be stored for a few seconds