CHAPTER 6: Suprasegmentals and Narrow Transcription Flashcards Preview

SPA 320-H01 INTRO TO PHONETICS > CHAPTER 6: Suprasegmentals and Narrow Transcription > Flashcards

Flashcards in CHAPTER 6: Suprasegmentals and Narrow Transcription Deck (87)
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1

SUPRASEGMENTALS

A phonetic effect that extends over more than one segment in an utterance.

Of or relating to significant features (as stress, pitch, or juncture) that occur simultaneously with vowels and consonants in an utterance.

A similar term is prosody.

The term suprasegmentals is regarded as the overarching category, with prosody being a major component.

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PARALINGUISTICS

The aspects of spoken communication that do not involve words. These may add emphasis or shades of meaning to what people say. Some definitions limit this to verbal communication that is not words.

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MELODY

Sometimes used as a synonym for prosody.

Melody conveys the basic idea that prosody pertains to the intonation and rhythm of spoken languages.

4

INTONATION

The pattern or melody of pitch changes in utterances.

Some definitions of intonation refer to the patterns of rises and falls, but even flat or unchanging intervals are part of the picture.

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PITCH LEVEL

The relative level of pitch that characterizes an utterance as a whole.

That is, a speaker can produce an utterance with a pitch that is high, medium, or low.

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INTONATION CONTOUR

Also called a pitch contour.

The pattern of pitch changes over an utterance.

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PITCH DECLINATION

Also called sentence declination.

An important aspect of pitch declination.

An overall fall in pitch over an utterance such as a sentence.

When we speak, we usually begin at a relatively high pitch then gradually reduce the pitch over an utterance. This pitch is one way of signaling the sentence structure of conversation–start high and end low.

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LINEAR DECLINATION THEORY

States that vocal fundamental frequency (f0) falls gradually and linearly throughout a sentence or clause.

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BREATH-GROUP THEORY

A declarative sentence can be divided into nonterminal and terminal parts, and variation of vocal fundamental frequency (f0) is permitted only in the terminal part of the f0 contour.

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PITCH RESETTING

Pitch reset occurs at the boundaries between prosodic units.

Over the course of such units, the median pitch of the voice declines from its initial value, sometimes reaching the lower end of the speaker's vocal range. At this point it must reset to a higher level if the person is to continue speaking.

In non-tonal languages, this sudden increase in pitch is one of the principal auditory cues to the start of a new prosodic unit.

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STRESS

The degree of prominence or emphasis associated with a particular syllable in a word or a word in a phrase, clause, or sentence.

Acoustically, stress is conveyed by some combination f0, intensity, and duration (all of which depends on the speaker and utterance).

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CONTRASTIVE STRESS

Used when we wish to deviate from the usual or expected pattern of stress in an utterance.

It is used to draw attention to a word.

Ex. Consider the stress given to the word of in the phrase: Government of the people, by the people, for the people.

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LEXICAL STRESS

A stress pattern intrinsic to a word.

Ex. A frequently used example is the noun vs verb forms of words such as protest, object, project, imprint, and research. Each of these words has a noun or verb form that is distinguished by the stress pattern of the word. When the stress is placed on the first syllable, the word is understood as a noun.

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PHRASAL STRESS

Stress that is assigned beyond the level of lexical stress to apply in syntactic groupings of words, such as phrases, clauses, or sentences.

Stress is not uniform across the words in a phrase.

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NEW VERSUS GIVEN INFORMATION

A contrast related to the kind of information in a message, specifically, whether the information is expected to be new to the listener or already known by the listener. 

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TEMPO

The speed at which a musical piece is or should be played.

Tempo is the rate of some activity.

The tempo of spoken language is its rate, commonly expressed in units such as syllables/min or words/min.

We often change the tempo of our speech depending on emotion, communicative setting, and other factors.

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RHYTHM

Refers to the distribution of events in time, such as the temporal pattern of syllables or other speech units. 

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ISOCHRONY

Literally, equal duration.

Refers to the impression of equalized or uniform durations of rhythmic units such as pairs of strong and weak syllables.

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STRESS-TIMED RHYTHM

A form of speech rhythm having relatively constant intervals between stressed syllables.

The syllables are not similar in length.

Languages like English, German, and Dutch are said to have a stress-timed rhythm.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUMM5eCvi8w

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SYLLABLE-TIMED RHYTHM

A rhythm in which syllables have pretty much the same length regardless of whether they are stressed.

The syllables are similar in length.

Languages such as Spanish and French are said to have syllable-timed rhythm.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUMM5eCvi8w

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MORA

A unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.

The definition of a mora varies.

James D. McCawley defined it as "something of which a long syllable consists of two and a short syllable consists of one".

The term comes from the Latin word for "linger, delay", which was also used to translate the Greek word chronos (time) in its metrical sense.

Languages such as Japanese and Estonian are reported to have a mora-timed rhythm.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U5r5TjgSSFc

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MORA-TIMED RHYTHM

A form of speech rhythm having relatively constant duration of syllable types.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U5r5TjgSSFc

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PAUSE

An interval of silence in an utterance.

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BOUNDARY or EDGE EFFECTS

Phonological or phonetic characteristics that appear at the margins of a linguistic unit, such as a phrase.

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LOUDNESS

The perceived magnitude or strength of sound.

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VOCAL EFFORT

The amount of physiologic energy that a speaker adjusts according to the distance between the speaker and listener.

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PROSODIC CONTOUR

A prosodic unit, often called an intonation unit or intonational phrase, is a segment of speech that occurs with a single prosodic contour (pitch and rhythm contour).

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INTONATIONAL UNIT

The combined pattern of f0 and rhythm, typically for a multisyllabic sequence.

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"MOTHERESE"

Or infant-directed speech or parentese.

A style of speech that adults use when speaking to infants, typically characterized by a higher pitch, exaggerated intonation, and increased repetition of words or other units.

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CLEAR SPEECH

A type of speech used to ensure effective communication under difficult conditions, such as speaking over background noise.

It usually is characterized by a combination of prosodic and articulatory changes.