Chapter 6-Surveys and Observations: Describing What People Do Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6-Surveys and Observations: Describing What People Do Deck (53):
1

What is a Likert-Type Scale?

a scale containing multiple response options that are anchored by the terms strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, and strongly disagree. A scale that does not follow this format exactly may be called a Likert-type scale.

2

census

a set of observations that contains all members of the population of interest.

3

cluster sampling

a sampling method in which researchers randomly select clusters of participants within the population of interest and then collect data from all of the participants in each selected cluster.

4

convenience sampling

choosing a sample based on those who are easiest to access.

5

faking bad

a situation that occurs when survey respondents give answers that make them look worse than they really are.

6

fence sitting

a situation that occurs when respondents play it safe by answering in the middle of the scale for every question in a questionnaire or interview.

7

forced-choice format

a situation that occurs when respondents play it safe by answering in the middle of the scale for every question in a questionnaire or interview.

8

multistage sampling

a method of sampling in which two random samples are taken from some population: a random sample of clusters and then a random sample of people within those clusters.

9

nay-saying

answering "no" or "strongly disagree" to every item in a questionnaire or interview.

10

observational research

the process of watching people or animals and systematically recording what they are doing.

11

observer bias

a bias that occurs when observers' expectations influence their interpretation of the subjects' behaviors or the outcome of the study.

12

observer effects

a term referring to people or animals changing their behavior (reacting) because they know another person is watching.

13

open-ended questions

a question that allows respondents to answer in any way they see fit.

14

true/false= there are no set rules for labeling but exact point labeling reduces ambiguity

true

15

population

some larger group from which a sample is drawn, which the sample is intended to represent.

16

probability sampling

the process of drawing a sample from a population of interest in such a way that each member of the population has an equal probability of being included in the sample (e.g., randomly).

17

purposive sampling

the inclusion of only certain kinds of people in a sample.

18

random assignment

the use of a random method (e.g., flipping a coin) to assign participants into different experimental groups.

19

response sets

a shortcut respondents may use to answer the items in a self-report measure with multiple items, rather than responding to the content of each item.

20

sample

the group of people, animals, or cases used in a study.

21

self-selection

a form of sampling bias that occurs when a sample contains only people who volunteer to participate.

22

semantic differential format

a self-report response scale whose numbers are anchored with contrasting adjectives. (e.g. easy and hard)

23

simple random sampling

the most basic form of probability sampling, in which the sample is chosen completely at random from the population, perhaps by drawing names out of a hat.

24

snowball sampling

a variation on purposive sampling in which participants are asked to recommend acquaintances for the study.

25

socially desirable responding

giving answers to a self-report measure that make one look better than one really is.

26

stratified random sampling

a sampling method in which the researcher identifies particular demographic categories of interest and then randomly selects individuals within each of the categories.

27

systematic sampling

a method of random sampling in which the researcher counts off to achieve a sample (e.g., choosing every nth person in a population, where n is a randomly chosen number).

28

unobtrusive observations

an observation made indirectly, through physical traces of behavior, or made by someone who is hidden or is posing as a bystander.

29

Which of these is a method of controlling observer effects or reactivity?

use unobtrusive observation

30

The following item appears on a survey: "My cell phone is new and has all the latest features". What is the biggest problem with this wording?

This survey item is double-barreled because it asks for a response about about two different issues. It should be split into two items: one about the age of the cell phone and one about the features of the cell phone.

31

Typically, in which type of claim is it most important to have a random sample?

Random sampling is linked to external validity and that is often the main concern in FREQUENCY claims. Associations and causes can often be determined without random samples.

32

What is "fence-sitting" by someone responding to a survey?

When respondents use the middle response because it accurately reflects their opinions, it isn’t a problem. However, people who use this response to play it safe, or because they don’t understand the question, are a threat to construct validity.

33

The campus safety committee has asked Professor Ibrahim to study bicycling on his campus. He trains two observers and has them observe at various points around campus. They record the number of cyclists and their safety. When the observations began, the observers noticed that bicyclists slowed down when they neared the observers. How could this observer effect be avoided?

The observers have an indication that the bicyclists are reacting to being watched, so they could hide or make unobtrusive observations.

34

Which is a method to control for observer bias that is a threat from the observers’ seeing what they expect to see?

Observer bias that comes about from the observers’ seeing what they want to see is avoided when the observers are "blind" to the conditions to which the participants are assigned.

35

Professor Law constructed a survey for the incoming freshmen to assess involvement with computer games, consisting of the following questions: 1.) What computer games have you played? 2) On a scale of one to five, rate how much you like and play your favorite game. 3) Which is truer of you? a) I have little interest in computer games or b) I would miss computer games if I couldn’t play anymore. 4) On a scale of one (strongly agree) to five (strongly disagree) scale, rate the following statement: Computer games are a great pastime. Which is an open-ended question?

QUESTION #3--This question allows the freshmen to respond any way they see fit, so it is an open-ended question.

36

Which of the following is not a form of response set?

FAKING BAD is related to socially desirable responding, whereas the other response types come from taking a shortcut of answering insistently to all the items, showing set.

37

The following item appears on a survey: On a five-point scale, where 1 is Strongly disagree and 5 is Strongly agree, rate the following statement: I look forward to coming to class. What type of question format is being used?

This is a Likert scale format because it asks for a rating of a statement using a five-point scale, anchored by "strongly disagree" and "strongly agree".

38

The campus safety committee has asked Professor Ibrahim to study bicycling on his campus. He trains two observers and has them observe at various points around campus. They record the number of cyclists and their safety. Initially, the observers can’t agree about what is dangerous behavior. Professor Ibrahim refines his codebooks to clearly define the rating scales and retrains them. What is he addressing by doing this?

reliability of the measurement --Professor Ibrahim is trying to make the judgments more reliable, which will ensure construct validity.

39

Which of these is not a way to control for socially desirable responding?

REMOVING THE NEUTRAL OPTION can be used to stop fence sitting, but will not affect socially desirable responding.

40

Which of these is a biased sample?

A CONVENIENCE SAMPLE is chosen on the basis of who is easy to access. This is not typically representative of the entire population from whom the researchers wish to generalize.

41

Professor Law constructed a survey for the incoming freshmen to assess involvement with computer games, consisting of the following questions: 1.) What computer games have you played? 2) On a scale of one to five, rate how much you like and play your favorite game. 3) Which is truer of you? a) I have little interest in computer games or b) I would miss computer games if I couldn’t play anymore. 4) On a scale of one (strongly agree) to five (strongly disagree) scale, rate the following statement: Computer games are a great pastime. Which is a forced-choice question?

Q.3-- This is a forced-choice question because the person must choose between two options.

42

The campus safety committee has asked Professor Ibrahim to study bicycling on his campus. He trains two observers and has them observe at various points around campus. They record the number of cyclists and their safety. Both observers are very interested in the topic because they have been struck by bicycles. Although the interrater reliability is high, what threat to construct validity should concern Professor Ibrahim?

observer bias --Both of Professor Ibrahim’s observers might be biased to see bicycles as being more dangerous than they actually are, based on their own experiences.

43

The campus safety committee has asked Professor Ibrahim to study bicycling on his campus. He trains two observers and has them observe at various points around campus. They record the number of cyclists and their safety. He selects 10 points at random from the places bicycles can be ridden on campus and selects five one-hour spans at random from the daylight hours for each place. He has his observers make observations at each of the 10 places for each of the five time spans. What type of sampling is he using?

multistage sampling --He has chosen a random set of places (clusters) and a random set of times within those places so it is a multi-stage sampling procedure.

44

Which of the following is a method to select an unbiased sample?

Multistage sampling-- bc it is a method of sampling by which all members of the population have an equal chance of being selected. It involves selecting a random group of clusters and a random sample from within each cluster.

45

Professor Law constructed a survey for the incoming freshmen to assess involvement with computer games, consisting of the following questions: 1.) What computer games have you played? 2) On a scale of one to five, rate how much you like and play your favorite game. 3) Which is truer of you? a) I have little interest in computer games or b) I would miss computer games if I couldn’t play anymore. 4) On a scale of one (strongly agree) to five (strongly disagree) scale, rate the following statement: Computer games a great pastime. Which question is a double-barreled question?

Q.2-- This question asks two questions in one: "rate how much you like your favorite game" and "rate how much you play your favorite game," making it a double-barreled question.

46

The student government at a college is interested in determining how important intercollegiate sports are to the students there. Since all students have e-mail accounts, they are able to send a survey to all the students. About 50 percent of the students respond. Which is the most likely bias in this sample?

self-selection, or a higher rate of response by those who have strong feelings

47

Which of the following is most important in determining internal validity?

random assignment-- Random assignment is used in experimental designs to assure the groups are similar, so this is concerned with internal validity.

48

The directors of the local symphony want to find the musical preferences of the audience at their symphony opening night. During the intermission at a sold-out symphony performance, the ushers place a survey card on every sixth seat beginning with the second seat (2 and 6 were chosen from a random number table). All of the cards are returned as the audience leaves. Which type of sampling is being used?

systematic sampling--This is systematic sampling as it involves sampling every nth member of the audience starting at a random point, where n is chosen at random also.

49

Professor Law constructed a survey for the incoming freshmen to assess involvement with computer games, consisting of the following questions: 1.) What computer games have you played? 2) On a scale of one to five, rate how much you like and play your favorite game. 3) Which is truer of you? a) I have little interest in computer games or b) I would miss computer games if I couldn’t play anymore. 4) On a scale of one (strongly agree) to five (strongly disagree) scale, rate the following statement: Computer games a great pastime. Which question uses a Likert-type scale?

Q.4 --The format in which people are presented with a statement and asked to indicate their degree of agreement is called a Likert-type scale.

50

Beth is working in lab on a project looking at attention span in children. Among the participants, the group of 11-year-old boys is underrepresented. Beth asks her 11-year-old brother to distribute flyers about participation in the study to his male classmates and soccer team. What type of sampling is this?

snowball-- Beth is finding a member of a group that is rare (for her sample) and asking that member to recruit others for the sample.

51

What sample size is often cited as the optimal balance between accuracy and effort?

1000--A random sample of size of 1,000 allows the generalization to a population with an error margin of plus or minus 3 percent.

52

The campus safety committee has asked Professor Ibrahim to study bicycling on his campus. He trains two observers and has them observe at various points around campus. They record the number of cyclists and their safety. After completing the observational study, Professor Ibrahim sends a survey out to the entire campus about bicycle safety, and asks all bicyclists to respond. He finds a large difference between their reports of how safely they ride and what his observers found. What is a likely cause of this?

socially desirable responding-- The respondents likely don’t want to admit to unsafe bicycling or don’t even realize that they engage in unsafe practices, so their responses tend to make them look better.

53

Which of the following is an open-ended question?

Why did you choose to attend your current school?---Each of the questions other than A is forced choice and requires one of two answers. Question A allows you to answer however you see fit.