If an aircraft is loaded so that the aft C.G. limit is exceeded, what undesirable flight characteristic is likely to result?
The aircraft will be tail-heavy and may be unable to recover from a stall or spin
If all the records for an aircraft are missing, how would you determine the empty weight and empty weight C.G. ?
Aircraft would have to be re-weighed and new weight and balance records would have to be prepared
Define "tare weight" and describe how it is handled when weighing an aircraft
Tare weight is the weight of anything on the scales that is not part of the aircraft. It must be subtracted from the scale weight reading to determine the net weight of the airplane
If a piece of equipment such as a radio is added to an aircraft, how can you determine the effect on weight and balance without re-weighing the aircraft?
A new weight and C.G. location can be determined by computation (the action of mathematical calculation)
Why is control of the weight and balance of an aircraft important?
What is the datum of an aircraft and what is its function?
Datum is an imaginary vertical plane at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the airplane. It is the reference point from which all horizontal measurements are taken
How do you determine the moment of an item of equipment?
Multiply the weight of the item by its arm, which is the distance between the item and the datum
What are two ways of determining the moment of an item of equipment?
Measure the distance between the item and the datum or use data supplied by the manufacturer
What should be done to obtain a positive (plus) moment aft of the datum?
What should be done to obtain a negative (minus) moment aft of the datum?
What should be done to obtain a positive (plus) moment forward of the datum?
What should be done to obtain a negative (minus) moment forward of the datum?
How does the category of an aircraft affect its loaded weight?
Aircraft certificated in more than one category such as normal and aerobatic, may have two different maximum gross weights and different useful loads
What should be done with equipment that is not permanently installed and recorded on the equipment list when weighing an aircraft?
remove from aircraft
define the term "residual fuel"
Any fuel that remains in the tanks, lines, and engines after the system has been drained
Define "Residual Oil"
Any oil left in tanks, lines, and engines after system has been drained
How should you account for fuel when weighing an aircraft to determine weight and balance?
Either drain the fuel system until only unusable fuel remains, or fill the tanks and subtract out the weight of the fuel except unusable
Where are leveling instructions found and describe one method of leveling an aircraft
Leveling instructions are found in the TCDS. Aircraft may be leveled by using a spirit level at specified points, or by using a plumb bob from a designated point along with a leveling scale or protractor
Define Mean Aerodynamic Chord
MAC is the chord drawn through the center of the wing plan area
Describe the two most common ways of showing the CG location and/or CG range
In inches from the datum or as a percent of MAC
What is the purpose of an aircraft loading graph?
It is a method for determining how to distribute the load so as to keep the CG within allowable limits
What is ballast and why is it used in aircraft?
Ballast is weight added to an airplane to bring its CG into the allowable or desired range
Installation of several new radios in the nose of an aircraft causes the forward CG limit to be exceeded. How can you correct this problem without removing the new equipment?
Ballast may be installed in the tail to move the CG aft
How does the CG of a helicopter compare to that of a fixed wing airplane?
Helicopters typically have a much smaller CG range