Chapter 62: Med Surg Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 62: Med Surg Deck (53)
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1

bone remodeling

removal of old bone by osteoclasts (resorption) and deposition of new bone by osteoblasts (ossifcation)

2

epiphysis

widened area at the end of a long bone (cancellous bone) location of muscle attachment

3

diaphysis

main shaft of the bone, structural support and composed of compact bone, marrow is in the center

4

metaphysis

flared area of cancellous bone between the epiphysis and diaphysis

5

osteons

also called haversian systems fit closely together in compact bone, creating a dense bone structure (cylinder shaped)

6

epiphyseal plate

aka growth zone, cartilaginous area between the epiphysis and metaphysis, allows longitudinal growth in children and injury can result in a shorter extremity and significant functional problems

7

medullary

marrow is the center of the diaphysis and contains red and yellow bone marrow

8

hinge joint

allows flexion and extension e.g. elbow

9

ball and socket joint

spheroidal; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction e.g. shoulder

10

pivot

rotary; rotation e.g. atlas-axis, proximal radioulnar joint

11

condyloid

flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction e.g. wrist joint

12

saddle

flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, thumb-finger opposition e.g. thumb

13

gliding

one surface moves over another surface e.g. between tarsal bones and carpal bones

14

hyaline cartilage

moderate amount of collagen, trachea, nose, epiphyseal plate

15

elastic cartilage

collagen and elastic fibers, more flexible, ear, epiglottis

16

fibrous cartilage

collagen fibers, tough, shock absorber, pelvic girdle, knee, shoulder

17

cardiac muscle

striated, involuntary

18

smooth muscle

nonstriated, involuntary, found in airways, arteries, GI

19

skeletal muscle

neuronal stimulation, half a person's weight, striated, voluntary

20

muscle contraction

thick and thin filaments slide past each other and cause sacromeres to shorten; acetylcholine activates

21

skeletal contraction

allows posture maintenance, body movement, and facial expressions

22

isometric contractions

increase the tension within a muscle but do not produce movement, repeated contractions make muscles grow larger and stronger

23

isotonic contractions

shorten the muscle and produce movement

24

what happens to muscles when calcium is low?

tetany occurs (involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle)

25

tendons

attach muscles to bones

26

ligaments

connect bones to bones

27

fascia

layers of connective tissue that can withstand limited stretching, provides strength to muscle tissue

28

bursae

small sacs of connective tissue that are lined with synovial fluid located at bony prominences or joints to relieve pressure and decrease friction between moving parts

29

gerontologic changes in musculoskeletal

increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation leading to osteoporosis, tendons and ligaments become less flexible

30

subjective data needed for muscoloskeletal

s/s pain, weakness, deformity; questions should be focused on past medical problems, surgeries, med use, ask about secondary bacterial infections including the ears, tonsils, lungs etc because these can enter the bones and result in osteomyelitis or joint destruction