Flashcards in Chapter 68 Nursing Management: Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Deck (11):
acute lung injury (ALI), p. 1665
a condition that occurs when the patient's PaO2/FIO2 ratio is 200–300 (e.g., 86/0.4 = 215).
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), p. 1665
a sudden and progressive form of acute respiratory failure in which the alveolar-capillary membrane becomes damaged and more permeable to intravascular fluid.
alveolar hypoventilation, p. 1657
is a generalized decrease in ventilation that results in an increase in the PaCO2 and a consequent decrease in PaO2.
hypercapnia, p. 1654
greater than normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood; also called hypercarbia.
hypercapnic respiratory failure, p. 1655
a condition in which the PaCO2 is above normal in combination with acidemia.
hypoxemia, p. 1654
low oxygen tension in the blood characterized by a variety of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms.
hypoxemic respiratory failure, p. 1655
a condition in which the PaO2 is 60 mm Hg or less when the patient is receiving an inspired oxygen concentration of 60% or greater.
hypoxia, p. 1658
the state in which the PaO2 has fallen sufficiently to cause signs and symptoms of inadequate oxygenation.
refractory hypoxemia, p. 1666
Severe V/Q mismatch and shunting of pulmonary capillary blood result in hypoxemia unresponsive to increasing concentrations of O2
shunt, p. 1656
occurs when blood exits the heart without having participated in gas exchange. A shunt can be viewed as an extreme V/Q mismatch. There are two types of shunt: anatomic and intrapulmonary.
An anatomic shunt occurs when blood passes through an anatomic channel in the heart (e.g., a ventricular septal defect) and bypasses the lungs.
An intrapulmonary shunt occurs when blood flows through the pulmonary capillaries without participating in gas exchange. Intrapulmonary shunt is seen in conditions in which the alveoli fill with fluid (e.g., acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS], pneumonia).