Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (41):
The process of putting information into a form that the memory system can accept and use.
Mental representation of information as a sequence of sounds.
Mental representation of information as images.
Mental representation of an experience by its general meaning.
The process of maintaining information in memory over time.
The process of recalling information stored in memory.
Memory of an event that happened while one was present.
A type of memory containing generalized knowledge of the world.
A type of memory containing information about how to do things.
The process in which people intentionally try to remember something.
The unintentional influence of prior experience.
A view stating that how well something is remembered depends on the degree to which incoming information is mentally processed.
Repeating info over and over to keep it active in short-term memory.
A memorization method that involves thinking about how new info relates to info already stored in long-term memory.
Transfer-Appropriate Processing Model
A model of memory that suggests that a critical determinant of memory is how well the retrieval process matches the original encoding process.
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models
Memory models in which new experiences change one's overall knowledge base.
A model of memory in which info is seen as passing through sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
A type of memory that holds large amounts of incoming info very briefly, but long enough to connect one impression to the next.
Memory systems that hold incoming info long enough for it to be processed further.
The focusing of mental resources on only part of the stimulus field.
The maintenance component of working memory, which holds unrehearsed info for a limited time.
The part of the memory system that allows us to mentally work with, or manipulate, info being held in short-term memory.
Immediate Memory Span
The maximum number of items a person can recall perfectly after one presentation of the items.
Stimuli that are perceived as one unit or as a meaningful grouping of info.
A method for determining how long unrehearsed info remains in STM.
A relatively long-lasting stage of memory whose capacity to store new info is belived to be unlimited.
A characteristic of memory in which recall of the first two or three items in a list is particularly good.
A characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the last few items on the list.
Stimuli that allow people to recall or recognize info stored in memory.
Encoding Specificity Principle
A principal stating that the ability of a cue to aid retrieval depends on the degree to which it taps into info that was encoded at the time of the original learning.
Memory that can be helped or hindered by similarities or differences between the context in which it is learned and the context in which it is recalled.
Memory that is aided or impeded by a person's internal state.
A principle that explains how info is retrieved in semantic network theories of memory.
Method of Savings
Measuring forgetting by computing the difference between the number of repetitions needed to learn and, after a delay, relearn the same material.
The gradual disappearance of the mental representation of a stimulus.
The process through which either the storage or the retrieval of info is impaired by the presence of other info.
The process through which either storage or the retrieval of info is impaired by the presence of other info.
A cause of forgetting in which info already in LTM interferes with the ability to remember new info.
A loss of memory for any event that occurs after a brain injury.
A loss of memory for events prior to a brain injury.