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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (41):
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Encoding

The process of putting information into a form that the memory system can accept and use.

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Acoustic Encoding

Mental representation of information as a sequence of sounds.

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Visual Encoding

Mental representation of information as images.

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Semantic Encoding

Mental representation of an experience by its general meaning.

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Storage

The process of maintaining information in memory over time.

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Retrieval

The process of recalling information stored in memory.

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Episodic Memory

Memory of an event that happened while one was present.

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Semantic Memory

A type of memory containing generalized knowledge of the world.

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Procedural Memory

A type of memory containing information about how to do things.

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Explicit Memory

The process in which people intentionally try to remember something.

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Implicit Memory

The unintentional influence of prior experience.

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Level-of-Processing Model

A view stating that how well something is remembered depends on the degree to which incoming information is mentally processed.

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Maintenance Rehearsal

Repeating info over and over to keep it active in short-term memory.

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Elaborative Rehearsal

A memorization method that involves thinking about how new info relates to info already stored in long-term memory.

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Transfer-Appropriate Processing Model

A model of memory that suggests that a critical determinant of memory is how well the retrieval process matches the original encoding process.

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Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models

Memory models in which new experiences change one's overall knowledge base.

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Information-Processing Model

A model of memory in which info is seen as passing through sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

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Sensory Memory

A type of memory that holds large amounts of incoming info very briefly, but long enough to connect one impression to the next.

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Sensory Registers

Memory systems that hold incoming info long enough for it to be processed further.

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Selective Attention

The focusing of mental resources on only part of the stimulus field.

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Short-Term Memory(STM)

The maintenance component of working memory, which holds unrehearsed info for a limited time.

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Working Memory

The part of the memory system that allows us to mentally work with, or manipulate, info being held in short-term memory.

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Immediate Memory Span

The maximum number of items a person can recall perfectly after one presentation of the items.

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Chunks

Stimuli that are perceived as one unit or as a meaningful grouping of info.

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Brown-Peterson Prodecure

A method for determining how long unrehearsed info remains in STM.

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Long-Term Memory

A relatively long-lasting stage of memory whose capacity to store new info is belived to be unlimited.

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Primacy Effect

A characteristic of memory in which recall of the first two or three items in a list is particularly good.

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Recency Effect

A characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the last few items on the list.

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Retrieval Cues

Stimuli that allow people to recall or recognize info stored in memory.

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Encoding Specificity Principle

A principal stating that the ability of a cue to aid retrieval depends on the degree to which it taps into info that was encoded at the time of the original learning.

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Context-Depending Memory

Memory that can be helped or hindered by similarities or differences between the context in which it is learned and the context in which it is recalled.

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State-Dependent Memory

Memory that is aided or impeded by a person's internal state.

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Spreading Activation

A principle that explains how info is retrieved in semantic network theories of memory.

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Method of Savings

Measuring forgetting by computing the difference between the number of repetitions needed to learn and, after a delay, relearn the same material.

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Decay

The gradual disappearance of the mental representation of a stimulus.

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Interference

The process through which either the storage or the retrieval of info is impaired by the presence of other info.

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Retroactive Interference

The process through which either storage or the retrieval of info is impaired by the presence of other info.

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Proactive Interference

A cause of forgetting in which info already in LTM interferes with the ability to remember new info.

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Anterograde Amnesia

A loss of memory for any event that occurs after a brain injury.

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Retrograde Amnesia

A loss of memory for events prior to a brain injury.

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Mnemonics

Strategies for placing info in an organized context in order to remember it.